One of the celebrities of physical culture in the mid-1800s was Dioclesian "Dio" Lewis (1823-1886), a Harvard trained doctor who advocated homeopathy, abstinence from tobacco, temperance, dietary and hygiene regimens, and moderate exercise for both sexes as ways to achieve better health. His recommended "scientific" methods of exercise were taught in several Boston area locations, marketed in Lewis's own publications, and discussed in contemporary periodicals. Interest in his "New Gymnastics" was so high and demand for instruction was so great that Lewis established the first United States school to offer certification in physical education instruction, the Normal Institute for Physical Training, in Boston in 1860.

Dudley Allen Sargent (1839-1924) was one of the late nineteenth century's most-respected advocates of physical fitness and purposive exercise for American women. His training as a doctor, his teaching position at Harvard and Harvard Annex (later Radcliffe College), and his insistence on methodical and regular progress reports, helped make his program and "apparatus" respectable standards in the field. Although Sargent speaks at length about exercises for females in Health, Strength and Power, only men are illustrated in the book. "Chicken Wings" is one of the movements recommended for young children of both sexes, adolescent girls, and women.


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