Reunion photography by Paola Nogueras '84
Assistant to the photographer, Gretchen E. Worsley '05

The class of 1952 carried its peacock standard to its Reunion panel discussion.

eunion is not about reliving the past, but rather about memory enabling a vision of the future.

"Intelligence may be the pride-the towering distinction of a woman; emotion gives color and force to her actions; but memory is the bastion of her being," said President of the Alumnae Association Susan L. MacLaurin '84 at the 105th Annual Meeting that traditionally closes Reunion. "Without memory, there is no personal identity, there is no continuity to the days of her life."* *Rephrased from D. Ewan Cameron, British Journal of Psychiatry, 1963.

MacLaurin, who completes her term as president, led the Alumnae Association's Strategic Planning initiative, a rigorous three-year self-assessment of the Association's volunteer organization and the programs and services it offers. Executive Director Wendy M. Greenfield said:"When I asked Susan of what she was most proud in her role as president, she replied, '... the rallying cry for the Alumnae Association, Lift the Lantern High, as a symbol of the way alumnae are rallying around the College and the Plan for a New Century.' "

This year's Reunion, "Gateways to the Future," included a special event-President Emeritus, Mary Patterson McPherson, Ph.D. 69, received Bryn Mawr's highest honor, the M. Carey Thomas Award. Presented jointly by the College and the Association to American women for eminent achievement, the award was created by the Association in 1922 at the retirement of President Thomas.

It has been awarded 18 times, the first to Thomas herself. Recipients have included Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, Eudora Welty, Georgia O'Keefe, and Marian Wright Edelman. Bryn Mawr has also recognized a number of its own brightest lights, including Marianne Moore '09; presidents Katharine E. McBride '25, Ph.D. '32, and Marion E. Park, 1898, Ph.D. '18; and University of Chicago President Emeritus Hanna Holborn Gray '50.

MacLaurin, who worked for McPherson when she was a senior, recalled her fifth Reunion: "Pat spoke to us, gathered on the lawn behind Wyndham, about Tianaman Square, the atrocities occurring in a land somehow far away and not as we celebrated. By her example, Pat reminded us to be committed to the woman in the chair next to us, and yet to know our place in this world, to stand up against what is wrong in our society."

"I can personally attest to Pat's wisdom, generosity and strength as a mentor and colleague," said President of the College Nancy J. Vickers. "As Vice President of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, she is overseeing programmatic initiatives to help institutions share the cost and creative potential of new teaching technologies, to prepare for the surge in faculty retirements that so many of us are anticipating in the next decade, to comprehend and thus better support the full arc of a faculty member's development. My list could go on. Her work will have a lasting effect on American higher education, and on generations of graduating students."

McPherson recalled, "When I was toiling in the Bryn Mawr vineyards, I would occasionally wonder how I might have fared with Miss Thomas-a complicated, difficult, genius of a woman who like most genuinely creative people, in her case an institution builder with a powerful vision, would not have been easy to work with. She was clearly not interested in the faint of heart or the weak-kneed, but I concluded that I really would have liked to have been able to have given it a shot! We are all the beneficiaries of that uncompromising vision that shaped the most independent, modern, demanding institution of higher education of its time, and it was done by and for women."

Her work at Mellon has only reinforced her faith in selective liberal arts colleges, she said. "I am also sure that Bryn Mawr's well-known rigor, tough academic standards, and serious expectations for her students, seen by even some of our own near and dear as perhaps from time to time too spare and tough-minded, is especially precious today, when pandering to the misnamed consumers of higher education has become in so many places an accepted reality."   read McPerson's full remarks

Reunion 2002 was the largest yet, with 16 classes (1946, 1947, 1948, 1952, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1962, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, and 1997) and a total of 1101 attendees:699 alumnae; 267 spouses, partners and guests; and 135 children.Seeing old friends and getting to know other classmates as well as younger and older alumnae is fundamental to the Reunion experience; so is intellectual refreshment and the exchange of ideas. This year's weekend was particularly rich in lectures and panel discussions by faculty and alumnae. There were opportunities to energize the body as well as the mind, including yoga, a bocce social, and a rockclimbing excursion for teens.

Remediating globalization
"I am not a Luddite," said Associate Professor of Political Science Michael Allen, one of a growing number of economists, sociologists and political scientists who challenge neo-liberalism, the market theory driving globalization.

"Globalization has its advantages," Allen said. "It facilitates growth in some parts of the world economy, but excludes and victimizes others. It rewards different mixes of social classes at different rates, creating patterns of loyalty, acquiescence and hostility."

The goal of trade liberalization is systematically to reduce and eventually eliminate all tariff and non-tariff barriers between countries as trading partners. Allen argues that there is a crisis of theory in the lack of a coherent response to neo-liberal ideology. "We have protests against it, but we do not have a positive substitute," he said.

Allen, whose subfields are international law and international political economy, has been focusing his scholarship on the philosophical, economical and theological implications of globalization. This past academic year, he discussed his ideas at the College's September 11 teach-in and in two research lectures.

In his Reunion lecture on behalf of the Center for International Studies, "Ethical Questions in the World Political Economy," Allen outlined his thoughts about ways to "a more inclusive approach to production that has positive human rights outcomes, is ecologically sustainable, and uses markets in more humane ways.

Allen warned the audience that he is still in the process of formulating his ideas: "If you like the taste of fresh bread, that's what you'll have this afternoon," he said. "Some of it might be hot, though. If you like hard crust, well, I'm not quite sure the crust has formed on this particular loaf!

"Power is exercised more easily in a context of legitimacy," Allen said. "For example, a parent is more effective over children in a context of hugs and caring, get them to do what you ask. So for families, so for larger societies. It is easier to exercise power if you are legitimately in charge; if your power is questioned, then you're going to have to exercise power through bargain efforts -- through exacting bargains where you can't get this until you give me that - or through threats and coercion.

"There are different techniques of social and political encounter. Those of you who are familiar with Jungian psychology will remember the notion of the archetypes, that we are built with different ways of relating-some individuals and cultures more through coercion, some more in legitimate exercise of authority and others are more used to negotiating. Even some of our theologies are built on the idea of negotiating with God, of redemptive behavior in terms of bargains rather than in terms of a free exchange of love. So in politics.

"My epistemology is built around the concept that there are different ways of relating in society, some legitimate and others non. All involve the exercise of power. It is easier to exercise power if you are legitimately in charge; if your power is questioned, then you're going to have to exercise power through exacting bargains or through threats and coercion.

"Countries such as the United States elect national leaders, but they are also leaders in systems beyond the United States. Some of the most powerful systems are governed or managed by people who are never elected, at least not by broad-based masses. The value of your stocks, your retirement funds are changing right now as the result of millions of decisions made by a handful of bankers in Bangkok, Hong Kong, Tokyo, New York, London."

The world economy and transnational production may be old, but movements now are much more fluid, faster and intense, he argued. Allen and other scholars describe the structural reorganization of the world as a "Gestalt moment," where global modes of production and consumption overlap those of the old "Westphalian" nation-states, which have defined territories and sole authority over their internal affairs.

"There are also urban communities of migrant labor on the edges of national and global spaces that sell odd goods to the foreign markets in exchange for a place to live, police protection or security," he pointed out. "And, in areas such as New Mexico, northern Canada, the rainforests of Latin America, and South Africa, there are people who are not even part of a national economy, but still hunt and gather.

"So there are ships moving over the seas, satellites moving through the atmosphere, jumbo jets landing and taking off, money coming in and out, cigarette smoke being let into the air, and chemicals being let out of taps. We have all of this potentially chaotic movement, but there's no coherent basis for order through the exercise of legitimate authority."

Allen diagramed overlapping circles of three areas of discourse-economic theory in the market, human rights in society, and philosophy of science in ecology-that begin from different premises. Within each sphere there are conflicting schools of thought vying for "ethical chairmanship."

The market
"I like to use the analogy of boxing for neo-liberalism," Allen said. "There are general rules of engagement-weight, length of the round, and so on-that apply to all boxers, but you don't have heavy-weight boxers going against fly-weights. What we have in the World Trade Organization (WTO) is a set of general market rules for heavy-weights and fly-weights that says, 'Let them at it, and whoever wins, wins.' That is madness, and it is unjust.

"We find in economic discourse many of the same archetypes that we find in religion. There is a certain neo-liberal fundamentalism in the IMF and World Bank. If you listen to their ex cathedra pronouncements, you'd believe that these theories were baptized and went to heaven. and that they cannot be questioned. In Margaret Thacher's words, TINA - There is no alternative.

"Japan has taken what I call deregisme-letting the state organize the market-even farther than in traditional French political economy, where the state championed the strongest industries. The Japanese ministry of industry and trade identifies key industries, designates them to represent Japan in the auto industry, chemicals, banking, and sees that they win. You will see in the contention between these two approaches to political economy how states will come into conflict.If it turns out that more Hondas are selling than Chryslers, there are going to be ethical questions: 'It's not fair, your markets are not open.'

"In a third approach, the European Union (EU) has attempted to marry social democracy with market economics, to create a European social charter which says 'Yes, we have to keep the workers on board, yes, we have to pay attention to ecology, to women's rights and urban housing.' It's more expensive than the Japanese and American systems, but it's also more socially efficient."

Human rights
"I need not tell you of the many human rights crises and tragedies that we've had in recent years. We thought we did away with genocide in the 1940s only to discover in the 1990s that we have it again with a vengeance, in the Balkans, in the heart of Europe, in Africa, in Asia. We still have slavery. People don't want to call it by that name, but that's what's going on in the Sudan.There's trafficking in women's bodies in Southeast Asia, from Central Europe to the back streets of Italy. Documents and conventions have been accumulating since the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which had some inadequacies, but was quite prescient and excellent for its time. Now we have returned to the question of legitimacy and are hearing, 'Who says we have to conform to a universal declaration of human rights?'

"I'd identify three schools for convenience: In the dominant multilaterial universalism school, based on the old Westphalian order, each state is sovereign in its own space but can come together to make documents that determine how we will all behave.

"What I call sovereignty and cultural relativism is an attack upon multilateral universalism that says you cannot tell Confucians, or Buddhists, or people in the Islamic community that there are a set of norms all should follow. One people cannot say to another people, 'This is wrong' until they have lived in their shoes.

"There is a third school, which some have labeled cosmopolitanism, that goes beyond multilateralism to say we are one world society and should go over the backs of or around nation states when they disregard human rights. Everyone across the planet is morally accountable to everyone else.

"Already you're beginning to anticipate that if we bring together the tripartite ethical discourse of human rights and the tripartite discourse of markets, we see a number of contradictions. One of them is that economic growth does not necessarily produce human rights' outcomes, that opening free markets employs some people and disemploys others. In the course of the economic boom of the 1990s, there seemed to be an increase in freedom of speech, establishment of constitutional governments, elections, but UNDP, World Bank and UN figures show that the world is becoming more rich and more unequal in all indicators of health, incomes, access to calories, clean water, and technology.

"The ethical discourse in ecology is largely between two schools, although there are others: sustainable development-planning production so that people can live in humane ways without destroying the earth for future generations-and the scientific-technological optimism school, which says if you give science enough time, we can invent our way out of the problem.

Towards solutions
"The power brokers in the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the WTO should allow nation-states to be gatekeepers of the movement of goods and services between the global and national spaces in such a way that allows people at the bottom to sell more to the next level up. They should be given enough land to cultivate so that they won't be displaced or slash and burn forests at the expense of the environment. The large orchard farms that produce for fast foods should be cut back or curtailed in some way, because it is the transnationals such as Libbys and Chiquita that benefit primarily, not the people who work in them. They're not a primary source of nutrition for the majority of people who live there and eat the things they produce themselves.

"I say this recognizing that most of the world's population lives in cities, but the fastest growing class in world society is the urban underclass. They have no formal jobs. They do not know of local ecologies-the plants, water systems, annual cycles of what works when. They know street smarts, weapons, drugs, hustling, tricksterism and they're highly suspicious. They do not think that the authority either of traditional elders or of global leaders is legitimate. They are a class of people that the world has lost and are a primary recruiting ground for movements that threaten our security."

Allen outlined a micro-cottage industry he has proposed for semi-employed populations, using as an example the capital city of Kingston in Jamaica, his home country.

"My premise is that there are not enough jobs in the formal world economy to employ all of the hands in the urban under class and that people can create their own production cycles at the local level, supported by the state in a context where the global institutions give the state the necessary permission or latitude of economic discretion. At the moment, most states do not have that. If they say they're going to do land reform and education of women and a radical approach to urban housing, they are slapped with all kinds of labels-'socialist,' 'Marxist,' 'communist'-and before you know it, someone's out of office or gets shot. It happens.

"Don't get me wrong-leaderships in developing countries are not angels. There is a lot of oppression, corruption among the elites. Discourse in human rights about cultural relativism is really a mask for local oppressions, so you need a countervailing force in multilateral institutions to say, 'Look, you are corrupt and I'm not going to give you any money until you democratize your system.' At the same time, some developing countries know a thing or two about their own culture, history and economy.

"Every so often the government builds high-rise housing for the poor with one barrack-type bathroom at the back. They're subsidized, and the politicians who build them get blocks of votes. My approach is to spend the same money on a different kind of house and human investment. Build a house in which you have means for subsistance-fish tanks, bird houses, compost boxes in which you can grow plants. The department of agriculture can determine which plants are best to grow in a small area, the best birds to raise on a rooftop, the kinds of chickens that give the most eggs, the brands of tilapia can be raised in a small tank and the rate at which they reproduce.

"Individuals must go to night or day school and learn horticulture, public health, social ethics, and a skill or trade. When you get a certificate you can move into a house on a rent-own basis and are responsible for keeping it clean. Your certificate is a down payment. What's in your head becomes your capital, which becomes collateral for your house; you'll be monitored over a certain timeline just like a mortgage. People would be organized in communities-quintets of a barber, dressmaker, jelly maker, electrician and dance teacher. They would be lent a small amount of startup capital, basic equipment, and given a contract. Each also would have the opportunity to take a formal job if it opens up."

"It's hard to take an idea this lofty and figure out what you can do at a practical level," commented an alumna in the audience, who said she does try to buy produce locally.

"An educated American electorate can make a difference by whom they send to Congress," Allen said. "What the United States does in the IMF, World Bank and WTO is more critical than the ambassadors we send to the United Nations." He also suggested letting the companies from which you buy know if you like their products but not what they're doing.

"The Multilateral Agreement on Investment at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which was almost passed in 1999, would have directly empowered companies under international law to sue national governments if they used environmental or health laws to block their investment strategies," he noted. "Governments would have had to sign off their sovereignty over certain ecological and human rights, labor laws, in the name of competitiveness. Companies could sue for discrimination not only in national courts but in the WTO court. We would have signed away all human rights for the sake of open markets.

"I would not abandon the discourse of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966). I have argued in a recent paper that if we blend the ethical premises of those two documents, what we have is a basis for a conversation for bringing in more ideas from different cultures, because they already represent if not agreement, certainly convergence. "My job, as I see it, is to educate the next generation of bankers and lawyers to have a vision of wider range of possibilities, not to be fundamentalists of neo-liberalism or scientific optimism," Allen said. "When you go out into the world and become powerful in these different transnational systems, remember that there's another reality besides the market and the Mercedes."

Women's NGOs in Zimbabwe
Mary Osirim, Associate Professor of Sociology and co-Director of the Center for Ethnicities, Communities and Social Policy, discussed her work with non-governmental women's organizations in urban Zimbabwe over the last 12 years. The bulk of Osirim's research focuses on women who operate micro-enterprises while being mothers, wives and entrepreneurs in a country gripped by near-starvation, and where approximately 30 percent of the population is infected with HIV. "In the midst of all that," Osirim said, "there have been examples of the strengthening of civil society."

Two organizations in particular have been important models for poor women's empowerment in the nation-the Zimbabwe Women's Resource Center and Network, and the Musasa Project Trust. For both organizations, poor and low-income women's material and non-material needs are central. "I have largely found," said Osirim, "that many national women's organizations, while they say they are very much committed to enhancing and assisting the needs of women at the bottom, have primarily benefited elite women." The Zimbabwe Womens Resource Center and Network and the Musasa Project are exceptions.

The Zimbabwe Women's Resource Center, founded in 1990, conducts gender-oriented training programs, traveling libraries and advocacy projects. It published a volume, Zimbabwe Women's Voices, and distributed copies at an NGO forum in China, held in conjunction with the United Nation's fourth World Conference on Women in 1995. The volume shared personal stories of poor women with a broad, international audience, exposing the patriarchal control in Zimbabwe that makes it very difficult for poor women to have access to land and the physical abuse they commonly endure.

The Musasa Project Trust, founded in 1988, works to reduce violence against women and child sexual abuse. Musasa's broad definition of violence, addressing questions of psychological, economic, domestic and sexual violence, is praiseworthy. In addition to running shelters, Musasa works with the police in urban and rural communities in raising their awareness, "sensitizing them to the fact that the police are very often an early stop for a woman who has been severely beaten."

Osirim also stressed that grassroots organizations are "most important for women at the bottom of the socioeconomic spectrum." Rotating credit schemes, for example, have helped approximately 50,000 Zimbabwean women. Members of a rotating credit scheme save a mutually agreed upon amount of money on a predetermined day at regular intervals. The money realized after collection is given on a rotating basis to a member of the group, and the process is repeated until every member has had a turn. "I cannot tell you how many women of the 150 or more that I have interviewed, just in the area of micro-enterprises, have talked about how these rotating credit schemes have kept their businesses afloat, have literally enabled them to buy needed supplies and pay the wages for subcontractors. They have provided important infusions of capital into these activities, particularly in periods of economic crisis, as the country is now very much engaged in."

Gene debates
In her lecture, "Genes, Genomes and Public Policy," Professor of Biology Karen Greif discussed the human genome project and how our increasing ability to manipulate genes has affected-and ought to affect-public policy.

"One of the most striking things about the biotechnology revolution," said Greif, "is how little policy has actually been established to regulate this. It's not a technology running amuck, but it's a technology that has generated a very broad range of very difficult ethical, social and policy questions, and pretty much none of them has been dealt with in any sort of coherent matter. The reason for this, of course, is that the issues that people are grappling with transcend science. One of the things I've certainly learned by studying genetics over the years is, just because you know the science doesn't mean you have an easy solution for anything."

Recently the biotechnology revolution has enabled scientists to engineer bacteria to eat oil, thereby cleaning oil spills. It has also benefitted the field of forensics. Greif noted that the Center City rapist would not have been found without using recombinant DNA technology. Many of the remains of the victims of the World Trade Center attacks were identified by DNA technology. And in medicine, trans-genic laboratory animals can serve as models, helping researchers better understand human diseases such as Alzheimer's and cancer.

"So there's tremendous power in the things that can be done," Greif said. "But the underlying current is that with power comes problems." Genetic screens can identify patients carrying a genetic disorder. "What to do with this information," Greif said, "is subject to a variety of problems. Having prenatal testing to determine whether your child will have a genetic disorder is not going to be of particular value if, for moral or ethical reasons, you are opposed to terminating the pregnancy."

Gene therapy, a procedure in which a particular gene is manufactured, incorporated into the genetic material of a cell, and inserted into the body, has enormous promise in curing diseases, Greif said. But it has had no successes in the past 15 years, and even a tragedy when one volunteering participant died during a trial. "The potential is there to cure people. But is it worth putting your life at risk in a gene therapy trial if it might kill you? These are difficult decisions to make."

Also, genetically modified crops are hotly debated. A form of rice known as golden rice has been developed that contains extra vitamin A. The rice could greatly improve the nutrition of people whose main diet staple is rice. But the effect these modified crops might have on other organisms in the environment is unknown.

Another troubling question is, who owns our genetic information? Should our genetic heritage be the property of the person who found the gene first? "Right now the U.S. government says, 'You found it, you patent it,' " Greif said, referring to the 1980 ruling of the Supreme Court allowing the patenting of living things. "Until the Supreme Court or Congress rules otherwise, our genetic heritage is not our own." (See the College News section of this issue for more discussions of bioethics at the College this spring.)

Preventing cancer in women
Oncologist Ana Maria Lopez '82 spoke to alumnae/i and their families about preventing cancer. Lopez stressed that tobacco use, poor diet and physical inactivity are major causes of cancer. "It's thought that if people did not smoke," she said, "we would decrease the incidence of cancer by a third, and that if we had a healthy diet and exercised, we would decrease it by another third. So one third of all cancer deaths are due to tobacco, and one third of all cancer deaths are due to diet and physical inactivity."

She provided general guidelines for the prevention of cancer and coronary disease, the most common causes of death among Americans:

o quit smoking
o maintain a healthy weight
o emphasize plant sources of calories in your diet (five servings of fruits and vegetables a day)
o exercise for at least 30 minutes most days of the week

And her "most effective health advice": "Find joy."

Lopez, Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine at Arizona Cancer Center, takes a holistic, inclusive approach in her outreach efforts. "People who don't have cancer do not see a medical oncologist," she said. "Those people are who I consider the 'at-risk well,' which is basically everybody. That's why I do this kind of outreach, where I talk with women about what can be done so that everybody can come up with a better health plan for themselves. My interest is in prevention, because if we can prevent a malignancy, if we can prevent a disease to begin with, then the patients are certainly better off."

Lung cancer
More than half of smokers die of smoking-related diseases, Lopez said. "The four major causes of death in the United States are smoking-related. When we talk about prevention, tobacco is really at the top of the list."

Lopez called lung cancer a women's problem: "It's the number-one cancer killer of women. ... Women in their teens are the group that we really need to target for smoking cessation, especially since the prognosis for women with lung cancer is worse than breast or ovarian carcinoma. ... The ultimate message is, never start smoking. That's the message we need to get to our daughters."

She pointed out Japan's very aggressive screening for its high-risk population. Whereas the United States' rates of survival have not improved in more than 30 years, Japan has demonstrated an improvement in survival. "They are diagnosing cancer at a much earlier stage."

One surprising fact is that the tar in marijuana is more carcinogenic than the tar in tobacco. Most estimates are that one to two "joints" equal a pack of cigarettes a day, she said.

Cervical cancer
You may not think of cervical cancer as a smoking-related disease, but nicotine is found in the cervix of women who smoke. That's why quitting smoking is one of Lopez' recommended preventative behaviors for cervical cancer. "Smoking appears to affect the immune system, the T-cell mediated system, which helps to fight off the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection," she said. "Smokers tend to have greater susceptibility to this sexually transmitted virus, which is directly linked to the development of cervical cancer."

She called cervical cancer a totally preventable disease: "Unfortunately, whenever I see a patient with cervical cancer that requires chemotherapy or radiation, I consider that a prevention failure. We should never see a woman with kidney failure because of cervical cancer."

Lopez recommended requesting a "Thin-prep" Pap smear when possible. Thin-prep Paps are more accurate than standard Paps.

Ovarian cancer
As with many cancers, the symptoms of ovarian cancer are vague. "What woman in the world has not gone through, at some point, abdominal discomfort or distention?" Lopez said. "Those are the main symptoms of ovarian cancer." This lack of specific symptoms directly relates to the late diagnosis for this disease- contributing to making ovarian cancer the deadliest gynecologic cancer. Another problem in detecting ovarian cancer is a lack of effective screening. Right now, she said, the best screening for high-risk women combines vaginal ultrasound and a tumor marker, CA-125. Women in the high-risk category who are done having children might discuss with their doctor having their ovaries removed as a preventative measure, she added.

Endometrial cancer
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer. Prolonged exposure to estrogen is a risk factor. "Any uterine bleeding in a post-menopausal woman needs to be considered abnormal," Lopez said. "Patients are awfully nice. They'll say, 'Well, it happened once, it's probably okay.' Even if it happened only once, you need to talk to your doctor about it."

Colon cancer
"Here we have a cancer for which we actually have a great screening test, but for which very few people get screened," Lopez said. Risk factors for colon cancer include being over age 50, physically inactive, overweight, a smoker, and having polyps in the colon. "People who have polyps, that's basically anyone who eats an American diet," she said. "We tend to eat a high-fat, low-fiber diet. We're all likely to have polyps."

She suggested a colonoscopy after age 50. "You see the whole colon, and it gives you about 10 years of knowing where you are." The colonoscopy needs to be repeated in 10 years.

Virtual colonoscopy is an emerging technology with great potential, Lopez said. Virtual colonoscopy utilizes a high-resolution CT scan to produce a three-dimensional image of the colon. The patient does not undergo an invasive procedure. "If virtual colonoscopy proves to be clinically effective and if patients go for it, that's the way to go," she said. "We need to get people screened."

If you have a first degree family member diagnosed with colon cancer, Lopez recommended you start screening for the disease 10 years before the age your family member was diagnosed. For example, if your relative was diagnosed at age 45, you should start screening at age 35.

Skin cancer
Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in the United States. "When you hear the statistic that one in three people will be affected with cancer in their life, that includes non-melanoma skin cancer," Lopez said. Melanoma, of course, can be fatal.

"Get to know your own skin. Get to know your own moles. Have your partner or a friend look at parts you cannot reach, such as your back. When you go to your doctor, ask for a full skin exam. Full skin exams increase your chances of finding melanoma by almost 10 percent."

"Most sun damage, from a malignancy-risk standpoint, is done by the age of 18, so we really need to be targeting children for sun safety. Also, there are still folks who go to tanning salons. Clearly there is no reason for doing that. It only increases the risk of melanoma."

Although people with pigment are less likely to develop melanoma, Lopez said "it certainly can be present in a pigmented person," adding that the most severe case of melanoma she has seen was in a Hispanic male who had been a migrant farm worker.

Breast cancer
The lifetime risk for breast cancer for women in the United States is one in eight, Lopez said. "A risk factor that a lot of professional women will have is having your first child after the age of 30." Early menstruation, late menopause, hormone replacement therapy, inactivity and weight gain after menopause are all risk factors, she said. She also included alcohol as a risk factor, citing a recent study in which a glass of wine a day was shown to increase the incidence of breast cancer among many participants. "Although a glass of wine may benefit heart disease," Lopez said, "it may increase breast cancer risk. It's a matter of weighing risks and benefits."

Lopez also discussed recent controversies surrounding the screening for breast cancer, noting that the Canadian Task Force just removed self breast exam from their screening recommendations for breast cancer. Self breast exam has never been found to decrease mortality, she said. "Self breast exam can also make women feel pretty guilty: 'I haven't done it every month.' And women can come in and say, 'What's this that I feel?' So you end up with biopsies that maybe aren't necessary."

Mammography has also been criticized, but Lopez maintained that it is the "best screening test we currently have for breast cancer" and that mammography screening results in a 25 percent improvement in mortality.

Other screening tests for high-risk women are ductal lavage, in which breast fluid is checked for pre-malignant changes, and ductoscopy, "with the idea that if we can detect breast cancer when it is much smaller, then we'll have better outcomes."

Women juggling, struggling
"When I was back for my 25th Reunion," recalled Cynthia Perry Barth '74, "a woman in my class who has not been able to have children and went through a lot of struggles with infertility said, 'You know, at Bryn Mawr they never talked about biological clocks.' She was very resentful, actually."

Managing director of The Diversified Search Companies in Philadelphia, Barth was one of five alumnae panelists discussing career trends in business.

Moderator Margaret Hoag '86, representative for the career network to the Alumnae Association Executive Board, said the annual survey of graduating Bryn Mawr seniors done by the Office of Career Development showed 60 percent of the Class of 2002 is going into the work force-the majority into finance, marketing, and management-and 16 percent going on to graduate school. These numbers are, respectively, the highest and lowest ever. Applications to med and law school are down and careers in government are on the rise, as baby boomers retire and jobs open up.

Barth said she did not come to Bryn Mawr expecting to have a career "the way I now understand a 'career'. I expected to do what my father expected me to do, which was get a great education, marry and raise kids and have really great kids!. Which I've done, but that's not the only thing I've done." After graduating, she expected to take a hiatus from work after the birth of her first child. "But I pretty much have worked straight for 28 years with the exception of the time I took to go to Wharton for an M.B.A.," she said. "I and women like me represent the furthest point in the arc of the pendulum in terms trying to do it all, to have a full-time career and children. A lot of people in my generation had to make personal sacrifices in order to advance their careers, but from what I've read, Gen-Xers are much more interested in control over their lives and a better balance than landing that top job. You've probably heard the statistics about the price that women baby boomers have paid to respond to corporate America's expectations - only 67percent of top executive women with MBAs are likely to be married; that compares with 84 percent of men, who have achieved those same levels of success in their careers. 75 percent of the men have kids and only 49 percent of women."

Younger panelists agreed, but acknowledged their growing awareness of a struggle. "Your generation gave us the gift of choice," said Armaity Bharucha Patel '92, human resources manager for Oracle Corporation in San Francisco. "We had had individual struggles as women, but as a group, we walked through doors that you all had broken down, saying, 'Hi, we're here!' We owned the world and just assumed that everything would come to us. Now we're beginning to realize that our choices have ramifications."

"I never felt I needed a career to prove anything to anybody," said Jennifer Hurley '93, partner at HFA Designs, a small Philadelphia-based urban planning firm."I always assumed I would have a career; I wanted to contribute something worthwhile and keep from being bored. But now I'm 31. All of my closest friends from Bryn Mawr want to have children. They don't want to have to leave their kids with nannies and never see them, but they also want careers. Everyone is really struggling with this.Peak fertility is at 28, but I think a lot of my friends just aren't going to be ready until they're 35-37. "

Barth noted a trend for American working mothers,"probably reflecting a softening economy," called 'sequencing'-women moving in and out of the workforce according to the economic needs of their families. "But the key years for career advancement are ages 25-44, and unless career tracks and employers start to identify a better middle ground, I think women are going to continue this juggling act," she said. Barth told the 90's alumnae, "It's your generation's job to make that flexibility happen! It would be better if not every woman has to piece together solutions for herself."

In her April 16 Washington Post Second Opinion column, "Women Can't Beat the Clock," Abby Trafford '62 blasted recent media coverage of working women and fertility for ressurecting the sexist myths that "women are stupid" (unaware of their biological clocks), "women are selfish" (preferring the acquisition of job skills over babies), and "women are scary" (educated women can't get husbands). "The real problem lies with the workplace clock, which usually ends opportunities for competition and advancement between the age of 40 and 50," Trafford wrote.

"We have seen some increase in flexibility with jobsharing and work from home," Barth said, "but employers are pulling back from these. We're also seeing the concept of the 'Mommy Track'-setting a slower pace and making some accommodations for women juggling families and careers-extend to men and women who have other career or avocational interests. They are asking employers for shorter work weeks and are willing to take the cut in pay that comes along with that. So employers are faced with the question of how to maintain productivity and keep a happy workforce. I'm not so sure this is a trend as much as a cyclical pattern.

"A real trend that is going to continue is employers' interest in diversity for the value that brings to a company, not just the 'this is the right thing to do' statutory imperative. Catalyst, a not-for-profit consulting firm that focuses on advancing women in business and the professions has done a number of surveys. They've actually seen an increase of about 10 percent in the number of women on Fortune 500 and 1000 company boards over just the past two years - now we're still 11 and 12 percent and at this pace, it will be another 25 years before we get to 25 of the seats so it's not like we've cracked this glass ceiling, but we're chipping away at it."

Susan MacLaurin '84, an investments portfolio manager at the Hospitals of Ontario Pension Plan (HOOPP) also noted increasing "opportunities to add to our skill sets in different ways and on more flexible paths than might have traditionally been the case. I have a CFA designation, which I wish I had known more about before I started my MBA, because I might not have done that. A CFA is done by self study, on your own time."

Hurley said that although the field of planning is quite diverse, men tend to specialize in transportation and economic development, women in community development and housing. Civil engineering is still very heavily male.

"One of the trends in my industry, both in architecture and planning and in civil engineering, is that firms are merging, trying to bring more work in house rather than subcontract," she said. "That means more opportunities for women because they don't need engineering degrees for some of those jobs. On the other hand, it's shutting down some of the avenues for work for small companies, like mine."

Karen Kerr '89, managing director of Arch Venture Partners, who also spoke to students this spring about careers in venture capital, noted that the percentages of women earning advanced degrees in computing, information sciences and engineering, although slowly rising, remain very low, much less than those in the biological and life sciences.

"Venture financing, particularly in the early stages, is largely of technology," said Kerr, whose firm concentrates on seed and early stage life sciences, information technology, communications and semi conductor companies. "Less than 5 percent of the dollars that get invested in venture capital go to companies that are led by women, and I see more women in sales, marketing, human relations, public affairs in technology companies-as support rather than production or in the very highest levels of management," she said. "I really think it's true that people want to work with people like them, and that has certainly hurt women."

MacLaurin and Kerr said their genuine interest in sports gives them a language to bridge gaps on the business front. "I love certain sports and lots of my girlfriends are good golfers," MacLaurin said. "We talk about it and strive to be good at this game. Some would say, 'Well, you're doing it because you want to advance your career', but my answer is 'no, we're doing it because we enjoy it, and this is something we take great interest in, but oh, by the way when you're in a meeting, it's a fabulous way to break the ice, to have something in common with someone you would never assume you would.' There could be someone sitting across the table from you who is 65, and you think, "What are we ever going to talk about on a business front?' You don't talk about business; you talk about the fact that on Sunday, both of you were on a golf course and one of you did this and one of you did that. It's amazing what gaps that allows you to bridge, in such a nice fashion and it contributes to good conversation, good laughs, camaraderie. It not done to prove a point, but to enjoy life."

MacLaurin noted that while the need to be physically fit and active adds an important health component to women's lifestyles, "it's one more thing that needs to get incorporated into the day." It's good if employers consider time spent exercising or with family as investments rather than "slacking off."

Steven Z. Levine, Leslie Clark Professor in the Humanities and professor of history of art, also lectured on the rigorous study of old and new media by the Center for Visual Culture. Among bi-college panel discussions were "Interviews with World Travelers," held by the class of 1977, and "Reflections on September 11 and Beyond," held by the classes of 1971, 1972 and 1973 at Haverford. A bi-college September 11 memorial service was also held at Haverford.

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