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 Chronological Diagram

The study region encloses the upper drainage basin of the Nemea River which flows north into the Gulf of Corinth. The Nemea Valley is one of three valleys defining the Corinthia. The valley to the east is drained by the Longopotamos River and contains the ancient city state of Kleonai. To the west is the valley of the Asopos River. The valley was the site of the ancient city state of Phlious and the modern town of New Nemea (formerly Ayios Yioryios [St. George]).
The NVAP region is strategically located controlling entry into the heart of the Peloponnesos. The study area includes the Tretos Pass (photo, below left, and map above). Here the modern national highway and railway line traverse from the Corinthia south into the Argolis. It also includes the Kelossa Pass (photo, below right, and map above), which leads from the Asopos Valley southeast into the Argolid. Thus NVAP geographically embraces a valley and its periphery and thereby enabled the researchers to pursue the goals of studying human settlement and land use within its borders in relation to adjacent areas as well as to regions further beyond its borders.

The Tretos Pass looking NE 

The Kelossa Pass, looking from Mount Polyphengi SE towards Mycenae


The study area is defined by Mt.Profitis Ilias  (theProphet Elijah), ancient Trikaranon, at the west, Mount Liophata and Mount Phoukas, ancient Apesas, on the east (visible as the flat-topped mountain in the photo at right) and a ring of hills forming the southern source of the watershed at the south. In the center of the colluvial plain is the fertile valley floor where are located the Sanctuary of Zeus with the fourth c. BCE Temple of Zeus and the modern village of Ancient Nemea (otherwise known as Iraklion-- Herakles' Town).

The sinuous hill stretching north from the village is Tsoungiza, the site of the main prehistoric settlement in the valley.
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