Solomon Asch Center for Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict

WEEK 1 Case Histories of Ethnopolitical Conflict

Recommended Introductory Readings: an overview of ethnicity and ethnopolitical conflict

Mays, V., et. al. (1998). Ethnic conflict: Global challenges and psychological perspectives. American Psychologist, 53, 737-742.

Smith, D.N. (1998). The psychocultural roots of genocide: Legitimacy and crisis in Rwanda. American Psychologist, 53, 743-753.

Cairns, E., & Darby, J. (1998). The conflict in Northern Ireland: Causes, consequences, and controls. American Psychologist, 53, 754-760.

Rouhana, N., & Bar-Tal, D. (1998). Psychological dynamics of intractable ethnonational conflicts: The Israeli-Palestinian case. American Psychologist, 53, 761-770.

Rogers, Spencer, & Uyangoda, J. (1998). Sri Lanka: Political violence and ethnic conflict. American Psychologist, 53, 771-777.

Comas-Dias, L., Lykes, M.B., & Alarcon, R.D. (1998). Ethnic conflict and the psychology of liberation in Guatemala, Peru, and Puerto Rico. American Psychologist, 53, 778-792.

Israel/Palestine

R Tessler, M. (1996). A history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Bloomington: Indiana Press. (pp. 273-307).

R Lustick, I. S. (1990). Changing rationales for political violence in the Arab-Israeli conflict. Journal of Palestine Studies, 20, 54-79.

Arlosoroff, C. (1948). Reflections on Zionist policy. Jewish Frontier, October, 49-53. (Letter originally published 30 June 1932)

Shipler, D.K. (1986). Arab and Jew: Wounded spirits in the Promised Land. New York: Times Books.

Schiff, Z., & Ya'ari, E. (1990). Intifada: The Palestinian uprising--Israel's third front. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Lockman, Z., & Beinin, J. (Eds.) (1989). Intifada: The Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation. Boston: South End Press.

Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1972) Some psychosocial and cultural factors in the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A review of the literature. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 16, 269-80.

Bilu, Y. (1989). The other as a nightmare: The Israeli-Arab encounter as reflected in children's dreams in Israel and the West Bank. Political Psychology, 10, 365-389.

Makovsky, D. (1996). Making peace with the PLO: The Rabin government's road to the Oslo accord. Washington: Westview Press.

Migdal, J., & Kimerling, B. (1993). The Palestinians: The making of a people.

Elon, A. (1972). Israelis: Founders and sons.

Awwad, T.Y. (1976). Death in Beirut. Colorado Springs, CO: Three Continent Press.

Northern Ireland

R Taylor, R. (2001). Northern Ireland: consociation or social transformation? In J. McGarry (Ed.), Northern Ireland and the Divided World. (Pp. 37-52). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

R Horowitz, D.L. (2001). The Northern Ireland agreement: clear, consociational, and risky. In J. McGarry (Ed.), Northern Ireland and the Divided World. (Pp. 89-108). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

R McGarry, J. (In press) Democracy in Northern Ireland: an assessment of experiments in democracy from the (first) Protestant ascendancy to the Good Friday Agreement. Forthcoming in Nations and Nationalism.

O'Leary, B., & McGarry, J. (1996). The politics of antagonism: Understanding Northern Ireland, Second Edition. London: Athlone Press. Chapters 2 & 3, pp. 54-147.

O’ Leary, B., & McGarry, J. (1999). Policing Northern Ireland: Proposals for a new start. Belfast: Blackstaff Press.

Feldman, A. (1991). Formations of violence : the narrative of the body and political terror in Northern Ireland.

O'Leary, B. (1998). The nature of the agreement. Transcribed lecture delivered at Queen's University, Belfast, November 26.

Ruane, J., & Todd, J. (1996). The dynamics of conflict in Northern Ireland: power, conflict, and emancipation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Whyte, J. (1990). Interpreting Northern Ireland. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fay, M., Morrissey, M., & Smyth, M. (1999). Northern Ireland’s troubles: The human costs. London: Pluto Press.

Pringle, P. & Jacobson, P. (2000). Those are real bullets: Bloody Sunday, Derry, 1972. New York: Grove Press.

O’Malley, P. (1990). Biting at the grave: The Irish hunger strikes and the politics of despair. Boston: Beacon Press.

Sri Lanka

R Rogers, J. D. (1994). Post-Orientalism and the interpretation of premodern and modern political identities: The case of Sri Lanka. Journal of Asian Studies, 53(1), 10-23.

R Jegananthan, P. (1998). In the shadow of violence: “Tamilness” and the anthropology of identity in southern Sri Lanka. In T. J. Bartholomeusz, C. R. & de Silva. (Eds.). Buddhist fundamentalism and minority identities in Sri Lanka. NY: State University of New York Press.

R Tiruchelvam, N. (1999). Civil society and ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. In G. Peiris & S. W. R. de A. Samarasinghe (Eds.). History and politics: Millennial perspectives. Columbo, Sri Lanka: Law and Society Trust.

R University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna). (1997). Children in the North-East War: 1985-1995. In J. Uyangoda & J. Biyanwila (Eds). Matters of violence: Reflections on social and political violence in Sri Lanka. Columbo, Sri Lanka: Social Scientists’ Association.

Desilva, C. R. (1982). The Sinhalese-Tamil rift in Sri Lanka. In A. J Wilson & D. Dalton (Eds.), The states of South Asia: problems of national integration. (Pp. 155-175). London: C. Hurst.

Desilva, K.M. (1993). The language problem: the politics of language policy. In K.M. Desilva (Ed.), Sri Lanka: problems of governance. (Pp. 275-305). New Delhi: Konark Publishers.

Daniel, E. V. (1996). Embodied terror. In Charred Lullabies: chapters in an anthropology of violence, (Pp. 135-153). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Seneviratne, H.L., & Stavropoulou, M. (1998). Sri Lanka's vicious circle of displacement. In R. Cohen & F. M. Deng (Eds.), The forsaken people; case studies of the internally displaced, (Pp. 359-398). Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.

Samarasinghe, V. (1996). Soldiers, housewives and peacemakers: ethnic conflict and gender in Sri Lanka. Ethnic Studies Report, 14(2), July, 203-227.

Tambiah, S. (1992). Buddhism betrayed: Religion, politics, and violence in Sri Lanka. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Little, D. (1994). Sri Lanka: The invention of enmity. Washington, DC: USIP.

Spencer, J. (Ed.) (1990). Sri Lanka: History and the roots of conflict. London: Routledge.

Somasundaram, D. (1998). Scarred Minds: The psychological impact of war on Sri Lankan Tamils. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Perera, S. (1998). Political violence in Sri Lanka: Dynamics, consequences, and issues of democratization. Colombo: Karunarathene & Sons, Ltd.

South Africa

R Horowitz, D. (1992). “A Divided Society.” Chapter 2 in A Democratic South Africa?: constitutional engineering in a divided society. University of California Press. (Pp. 42-86).

R Taylor, R. (1991). The myth of ethnic division: township conflict on the reef. Race and Class, 33(2), 1-14.

Price, R. M. (1991). The Apartheid state in crisis: Political transformation in South Africa 1975-1990. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

duPreez, P. (1997). In search of genocide: A comparison of Rwanda and South Africa. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 3(3), 245-259.

deKock, E. (1998). A long night's damage: Working for the apartheid state. Saxonwold, Republic of South Africa: Contra Press. (Chapters 1-8, pp. 9-152).

Krog, A. (1998). Country of my skull: guilt, sorrow, and the limits of forgiveness in the new South Africa. New York: Times Books.

Sampson, A. (1999). Mandela: The authorized biography. New York: Vintage Books.

Mandela, N. (1994). Long walk to freedom. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Tutu, D. (1999). No future without forgiveness. New York: Doubleday.

Pauw, J. (1997). Into the heart of darkness: Confessions of Apartheid’s assassins. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball Publishers.

Shea, D. (2000). The South African Truth Commission: The politics of reconciliation. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace.

WEEK 2 The Political Science of Ethnic/National Identity

Constructivist Theories of Ethnic Identity

R Suny, R. (2001). History. In A. J. Motyl (Ed.), Encyclopedia of nationalism, pp. 335-358. New York: Academic Press.

R Suny, R. Provisional stabilities: The politics of identities in post-Soviet Eurasia. International Security, XXIV, 139-178.

Eley, G., & Suny, R. G. (Eds.). (1996). Becoming national: A reader. New York: Oxford University Press.

Connor, W. (1994). Ethnonationalism: The quest for understanding. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Smith, A. D. (1986). The Ethnic Origins of Nationalism. Cambridge: Blackwell.

Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso Editions.

Gellner, E. (1983). Nations and nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Gellner, E. (1997). Nationalism. New York: NYU Press.

Nagel, J. (1994). Constructing ethnicity: Creating and recreating ethnic identity and culture. Social Problems, 41, 152-176.

Rational Choice Models of Ethnicity

R Bates, R. (1974). Ethnic competition and modernization in contemporary Africa. Comparative Political Studies, 6(4), 457-484.

R Laitin, D. (1998). Chapter 1 in Identity in Formation. Ithica: Cornell University Press.

Breton, A. (1964). The economics of nationalism. Journal of Political Economy, 72(4), 376-386.

Hechter, M. (1975). The political economy of ethnic change. American Journal of Sociology, 79, 1151-1178.

Hardin, R. (1995). One for all: The logic of group conflict. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Laitin, D. (1998). Identity in formation: The Russian-speaking populations in the near abroad. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Fearon, J., & Laitin, D. (1996). Explaining interethnic cooperation. American Political Science Review, 90, 715-735.

Breton, A. et al. (1995). Nationalism and rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Post-Colonialism and Ethnic Identity

R Norton, A. Thirteen Theses on Identity. (excerpt from 95 Theses on politics, culture, and method. Unpublished manuscript.

R Fannon, F. (1963). Colonial war and mental disorders. The wretched of the earth. (Pp. 249-316). New York: Grove Press.

Althusser, L. (1971). Lenin and Philosophy. London: New Left Books.

Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Bhabha, H. (1994). The Location of Culture. London: Routledge.

Nandy, A. (1983). The intimate enemy: Loss and recovery of self under colonialism. New Delhi: Oxford.

Chatterjee, P. (1993). The nation and its fragments: Colonial and postcolonial histories. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Varshney, A. (1993). Contested meanings: India's national identity, Hindu nationalism, and the politics of anxiety. In “Reconstructing nations and states", special issue of Daedalus (Summer 1993).

Language Issues and Ethnopolitical Conflict

R Language Policy: Introductory Remarks.

R Schiffman, H. (2001) Thinking about language policy. (Unpublished manuscript.)

Miscellaneous Handouts

May, S. (2001) Language and minority rights. Ethnicity, Nationalism, and the Politics of Language. Pearson Education, Ltd. (Language in Social Action Series)

Schiffman, H. (1996) Linguistic Culture and Language Policy. Routledge Press.

Articles about language policy in CD-ROM database in Van Pelt Library

http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/540/cdrom/ericcdr.html

Kloss, H. (1998) The American Bilingual Tradition (second edition). Available from Delta Systems, Inc.

Bibliography of Journals and Periodicals http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/540/540bib.html

More bibliography at http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/540/tables/listabl.html

WEEK 3 The Psychology of Group Identification and Attachment

Overview of Group Dynamics

R McCauley, C. (2001). Chapter 21 in Ethnopolitical Warfare : Causes, Consequences, and Possible Solutions Eds. Chirot, D., and Seligman, M. (Pp. 343-362) American Psychological Association.

R McCauley, C. (1998). Group dynamics in Janis’s theory of groupthink:: Backward and forward. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 73, 142-162.

R Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., and Solomon, S. (1997). Why do we need what we need? A terror management perspective on the roots of human social motivation. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 1-20.

Sedikides, C., Insko, C., & Schopler, J. (Eds.), (1997). Intergroup cognition and behavior. Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum.

Fiske, S. (1998). Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. In D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, 4th Edition, Volume II, pp. 357-411. New York: McGraw-Hill.

McCauley, C., Jussim, L, & Lee, Y. T. (1995). Stereotype accuracy: Toward appreciating group differences. In Y. T. Lee, L. Jussim & C. McCauley (Eds.), Stereotype accuracy: Toward an appreciation of group differences (pp. 293-312). Washington, D.C.: APA Books.

Smith, E. R. (1993). Social identity and social emotions: Toward new conceptualizations of prejudice. In D. Mackie & D. Hamilton (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and stereotyping (pp. 297-315). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Kinder, D. R. (1998). Opinion and action in the realm of politics. In D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, 4th Edition, Volume II, pp. 778-867. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Herman, E., & Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing consent: the political economy of the mass media. New York: Pantheon Books.

Tajfel, H (1970). Experiments in intergroup discrimination, Scientific American, 223, 96-102.

Pettigrew, T. (1998). Intergroup contact theory. Annual Review of Psychology, 49,65-85.

Katz, I. (1991). Gordon Allport’s The Nature of Prejudice. Political psychology, 12, 125-157.

Forbes, H. D. (1997). Ethnic conflict: commerce, culture and the contact hypothesis. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Social Movements and the Manipulation of Ethnicity

R Oberschall, A. (1994). Rational Choice in collective protests. Rationality and Society, 6, 79-100.

R Oberschall, A. (2000). The manipulation of ethnicity: from ethnic cooperation to violence and war in Yugoslavia. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23, 982-1001.

R Oberschall, A. (2000). Utopian visions: Engaged sociologies for the 21st Century. Contemporary Sociology, 29, 1-13.

Oberschall, A. (1993). Social movements: Ideologies, interests, & identities. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Tyler, T., & Smith, H. (1998). Social justice and social movements. Chapter 30 in D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, 4th Edition, Volume II, pp. 595-629. New York: McGraw-Hill

Stryker, S., Owens, T. J., & White, R. W. (Eds.) (2000). Self, identity, and social movements. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Della Porta, D., & Reiter, H. (Eds.). (1998). Policing protest: The control of mass demonstrations in western democracies. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Klandermans, B. (1997). The social psychology of protest. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.

Johnston, H., & Kandermans, B. (Eds.). (1995). Social movements and culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Social Identification Theory and Social Categorization Theory

R Turner, J. (1984). Social identification and social group formation. From Tajfel, H., The Social Dimension: European Developments in Social Psychology. (Pp.518-538). Cambridge University Press.

R Deaux, K., Reid, A., Mizrahi, K., & Ethier, A. (1995). Parameters of social identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 280-291.

R Phinney, J.S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499-514.

R Nagel, J. (1994). Constructing ethnicity: Creating and recreating ethnic identity and culture. Social Problems, 41, 152-176.

Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14, 20-39.

Duck, J. M., Hogg, M. A., & Terry, D. J. (1999). Social identity and perceptions of media persuasion: Are we always less influenced than others? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 1879-1899.

Gaertner, S. L., Dovidio, J. F., Banker, B. S., Houlette, M., Johnson, K. M., & McGlynn, E. A. (2001). Reducing intergroup conflict: From superordinate goals to decategorization, recategorization, and mutual differentiation. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4, 98-114.

Hogg, M. A., & Terry, D. J. (2000). Social identity and self-categorization processes in organizational contexts. Academy of Management Review, 25, 121-140.

Hogg, M. A., Turner, J. C., & Davidson, B. (1990). Polarized norms and social frames of reference: A test of the self-categorization theory of group polarization. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 11, 77-100.

Polzer, J. T., Stewart, K. J., & Simmons, J. L. (1999). A social categorization explanation for framing effects in nested social dilemmas. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 79, 154-178.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33-47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Jetten, J., Hogg, M. A., & Mullin, B. (2000). In-group variability and motivation to reduce subjective uncertainty. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4, 184-198.

Brewer, M. B., & Kramer, R. M. (1985). The psychology of intergroup attitudes and behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 219-243.

Individual Differences in Group Identification

R Kosterman, R., and Feshbach, S. (1989). Toward a measure of patriotic and nationalistic attitudes. Political Psychology, 10, 257-274.

R Schatz, R.T., Staub, E., and Lavine, H. (1999). On the varieties of national attachment: blind versus constructive patriotism. Political Psychology, 20, 151-174.

Brown, R. (2000). Social Identity Theory: Past achievements, current problems and future challenges. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 745-778.

Perreault S., & Bourhis R. Y. (1999). Ethnocentrism, social identification, and discrimination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 92-103.

Realo, A., Allik, J., and Vadi, M. (1997). The Hierarchical Structure of Collectivism. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 93-116.

Shah, J. Y., Kruglanski, A. W., & Thompson, E. P. (1998). Membership has its (epistemic) rewards: Need for closure effects on in-group bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 383-393.

Bar-Tal, D., & Staub, E. (Eds.). (1997). Patriotism in the lives of individuals and nations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

WEEK 4 Aggression: Theory and Research Findings

Individual versus Intergroup Aggression

R McCauley, C., & Segal, M. (1987). Social psychology of terrorist groups. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 231-256.

R McCauley, C., Wright, M., & Harris, M. (2000). Diversity workshops on campus: A survey of current practice at U.S. colleges and universities. College Student Journal, 34, 100-114.

R McCauley, C. (2000). How President Bush moved the U.S. into the Gulf War. Journal for the Study of Peace and Conflict, 2000-2001 Annual Edition, 32-42.

Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 74-96.

Tedeschi, J. T., & Felson, R. B. (1994). Violence, aggression, & coercive actions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Sabini, J. (1995). Social psychology, 2nd Edition. New York: Norton.

DeRidder, R., & Tripathi, R. C. (Eds.) (1992). Norm violation and intergroup relations. New York: Oxford University Press.

Archer, D., & Gartner, R. (1984). Violence and crime in cross-national perspective. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Kenrick, D. T., Cialdini, R. B., & Linder, D. E. (1979). Misattribution under fear producing circumstances: Four failures to replicate. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 5, 329-334.

Konecni, V. J., & Doob, A. N. (1972). Catharsis through displacement of aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psy chology, 23, 279-397.

Konecni, V. J. (1975). Annoyance, type and duration of post-annoyance activity, and aggression: The "cathartic" effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 104, 76-102.

Stouffer, S. A., et al. (1949). The American Soldier, Vol. 2: Combat and its aftermath. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

McCauley, C. (1991). Terrorism research and public policy: An overview. Terrorism and Political Violence, 3, 126-144.

Goldhagen, D. J. (1996). Hitler's willing executioners: ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. New York : Knopf.

Browning, C. R. (1992). Ordinary men: Reserve police battalion 101 and the final solution in Poland. New York: HarperCollins. 1998 “Afterword”, pp.191-223.

Keegan, J. (1977). The face of battle: A study of Agincourt, Waterloo, and the Somme. New York: Vintage.

Marshall, S. L. A. (1947). Men against fire: The problem of battle command in future war. New York: Morrow.

Little, R. (1964). Buddy relations and combat performance. In M. Janowitz (Ed.), The new military. New York: Russell Sage.

Moskos, C. C. (1975). The combat soldier in Vietnam. The Journal of Social Issues, 31, 25-37.

Holmes, R. (1985). Acts of war: The behavior of men in battle. New York: Free Press.

Zillmann, D., & Cantor, J. R. (1976). Effects of timing of information about mitigating circumstances on emotional responses to provocation and retaliatory behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12, 38-55.

Zillmann, D., Johnson, R. C., & Day, K. D. (1974). Attribution of apparent arousal and proficiency of recovery from sympathetic activation affecting excitation transfer to aggressive behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 503-515.

Theories of Intergroup Aggression

R LeVine, R.A. & Campbell, D.T. (1972). Realistic group conflict theory. Chapter 3 in Ethnocentrism: Theories of conflict, ethnic attitudes and group behavior. New York: John Wiley. (pp. 29-42).

R Ross, M.H. (1993). Political conflict and the structure of society. Chapter 3 in The culture of conflict: Interpretations and interests in comparative perspective. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. (pp. 33-50).

R Axelrod, R. (1984). The evolution of cooperation. New York: Basic Books. (Chapters 1, 2, & 4).

Sherif, M., et al. (1961). Intergroup conflict and cooperation: The Robbers’ Cave experiment. Norman, OK: Oklahoma Book Exchange.

Brewer, M., & Brown, R. (1998). Intergroup relations. Chapter 29 in D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, 4th Edition, Volume II, pp. 554-594. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Taylor, D.M., & Moghaddam, F.M. (1987). Realistic group conflict theory. In D.M. Taylor & F.M. Moghaddam (Eds.), Theories of intergroup relations: International social psychological perspectives, pp. 33-57. Praeger.

Tyler, T. & Smith, H. (1998). Social justice and social movements. Chapter 30 in D.T. Gilbert, S.T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, 4th Edition, Volume II, pp. 595-629. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Walker, I., & Mann, L. (1987). Unemployment, relative deprivation, and social protest. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 275-283.

Developmental and Cultural Origins of Ingroup and Outgroup Aggression

R Ross, M.H. (1993). The management of conflict: Interpretations and interests in comparative perspective. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. (pp. 1-34).

R Ross, M.H. (2001). Psychocultural interpretations and dramas: Identity dynamics in ethnic conflict. Political Psychology, 22, 157-178.

R Volkan, V. (1997). Blood lines: From ethnic pride to ethnic terrorism. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. (pp. 3-49).

Ross, M .H. (1995). Psychocultural interpretation theory and peacemaking in ethnic conflicts. Political Psychology, 16, 523-544.

Ignatieff, M. (1995). Nationalism and the narcissm of minor differences. Queen's Quarterly, Spring, 13-26.

Volkan, V. (1985). The need to have enemies and allies: A developmental approach. Political Psychology, 6, 219-247.

Montville, J. V. (1991). Psychoanalytic enlightenment and the greening of diplomacy. In V. D. Volkan, J. V. Montville & D. A. Julius (Eds.), The Psychodynamics of international relationships. Volume II: Unofficial diplomacy at work. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, pp. 177-192.

Volkan, V. D. (1999). Psychoanalysis and diplomacy: Part I. Individual and large group identity. Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 1, 29-55.

Mack, J. (1983). Nationalism and the self. Psychohistory Review, 2, 47-69.

Evolutionary Origins of Group Conflict

R Hirschfeld, L. (1996). Chapter 4 in Race in the making: Cognition, culture, and the child’s construction of human kinds. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

R Gil-White, F. J. (1999). How thick is blood? The plot thickens…: If ethnic actors are primordialists, what remains of the circumstantialist/primordialist controversy? Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(5), 789-820.

Atran, S., P. Estin, et al. (1997). Generic species and basic levels: Essence and appearance in fold biology. Journal of Ethnobiology, 17, 17-43.

Barth, F., (Ed.). (1969). Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of cultural differences. Boston: Little Brown & Co.

Tal, U. (1982). Law and theology: On the status of German Jewry at the outset of the Third Reich. Third annual lecture of the Jacob M. and Shoshana Schreiber chair of contemporary Jewish Histonry, Tel Aviv University, Faculty of the Humanities.

Sudetic, C. (1998). Blood and vengeance. New York: WW Norton and Co.

Gil-White, F. J. (2001). Are ethnic groups ‘species’ to the human brain?: Essentialism in our cognition of some social categories. Current Anthropology, 42, in press.

WEEK 5 Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing

The Roots of Evil

R Staub, E. (1999). The origins and prevention of genocide, mass killing, and other collective violence. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 5, 303-341.

R Staub, E. (1998). Breaking the cycle of genocidal violence: Healing and reconciliation. In J. H. Harvey (Ed.), Perspectives on loss: A sourcebook. New York: Brunner/Mazel. (pp. 231-238).

R Staub, E., & Pearlman, L.A. Healing, reconciliation and forgiving after genocide and other collective violence. Forthcoming in Templeton Foundation Review.

R Staub, E. (1996). Altruism and aggression in children and youth. In R. S. Feldman, (Ed.), The psychology of adversity. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. (pp. 115-144).

Naimark, N. M. (2001). Fires of hatred: Ethnic cleansing in twentieth-century Europe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Alvarez, A. (2001). Governments, citizens, and genocide: A comparative and interdisciplinary approach. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

duPreez, P. (1997). In search of genocide: A comparison of Rwanda and South Africa. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 3, 245-259.

Chirot, D. (1997). Modern tyrants: The power and prevalence of evil in our age. New York: Free Press.

Horowitz, I. L. (1997). Taking lives: Genocide and state power. Fourth Edition.

Bennett, C. (1997). Ethnic cleansing in former Yugoslavia. In M. Guibernau & J. Rex (Eds.), The ethnicity reader: Nationalism, multiculturalism & migration. Malden: Blackwell. (pp. 120-132).

Kressel, N. J. (1996). Mass hate: The global rise of genocide and terror. New York: Plenum Press.

Andreopoulos, G. J. (Ed.). (1994). Genocide: Conceptual and historical dimensions. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Gourevitch, P. (1998). We wish to inform you that tomorrow we will be killed with our families: Stories from Rwanda. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

Mamdani, M. (2001). When victims become killers: Colonialism, nativism, and the genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Sells, M. A. (1996). The bridge betrayed: Religion and genocide in Bosnia. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

WEEK 6 Addressing the Conflict Experience I: Psychological Reactions and Psychosocial / Mental Health Responses

Children and Ethnic Violence

R Garbarino, J., & Kostelny, K. (1996). The effects of political violence on Palestinian children's behavior proglems: A risk accumulation model. Child Development, 67, 33-35.

R Punamaki, R. (1996). Can ideological commitment protect children’s psychosocial well-being in situations of political violence? Child Development, 67, 55-69.

R Macksoud, M. S., & Aber, J. L. (1996). The war experiences and psychosocial development of children in Lebanon. Child Development, 67, 70-88.

Cohn, I., & Goodwin-Gill, G. (1994). Child soldiers: The role of children in armed conflict. New York: Oxford University Press.

Punamaeki, R., Qouta, S.; & El-Sarraj, E. (2001). Resiliency factors predicting psychological adjustment after political violence among Palestinian children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25, 256-267

International Save the Children Alliance. (1996). Promoting psychosocial well-being among children affected by armed conflict and displacement: Principles and approaches. Working Paper No. 1.

Ager, A. (1995) Children, war and psychological intervention. In S. C. Carr and J. Schumaker (Eds), Psychology and the developing world. New York: Praeger.

Mollica, R. F., Poole, C., et al. (1997). Effects of war trauma on Cambodian refugee adolescents' functional health and mental health status. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1098-1106.

Local Intervention: Strategies, Issues, and Ethics

R Wessells, M. G., & Monteiro, C. (2001). Psychosocial interventions and post-war reconstruction in Angola: Interweaving Western and traditional approaches. In D. Christie, R. V. Wagner, & D. Winter (Eds.), Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century (pp. 262-275). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

R Straker, G. (1994). Ethical issues in working with children in war zones. In R. J. Apfel & B. Simon (Eds.), Minefields in their hearts (pp. 18-32). New Haven: Yale University Press.

R Honwana, A. (1997). Healing for peace: Traditional healers and post-war reconstruction in Southern Mozambique. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 3, 293-305.

Wessells, M. Recruitment Of Children As Soldiers In Sub-Saharan Africa: An Ecological Analysis (Journal Of Comparative Social Research, In Press)

Anderson, M. B. (1999). Do no harm: How aid can support peace—or war. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Anderson, M. B. & Woodrow, P. J. (1998). Rising from the ashes: Development strategies in times of disaster. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Moore, J. (Ed.). (1998). Hard choices: Moral dilemmas in humanitarian intervention. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Fisher, J. (1998). Non-governments: NGOs and the political development of the Third World. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.

Cuny, F. C., & Hill, R. B. (1999). Famine, conflict, and response: A basic guide. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.

Maynard, K. A. (1999). Healing communities in conflict: International assistance in complex emergencies. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hoffmann, S. (Ed.). (1999). The ethics and politics of humanitarian intervention. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Korey, W. (1998). NGOs and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. New York: Palgrave.

History of Trauma and Cross-Cultural Conceptualizations

R Wilbur Scott, 1990, PTSD in DSM III: A Case in the Politics of Diagnosis and Disease, Social Problems, 37 (3): 294-310

R Abram Kardiner, 1959, Traumatic Neurosis of War, in Silvano Arieti, ed., American Handbook of Psychiatry, vol. 1, New York: Basic Books, (pp 245 – 257)

R Derek Summerfield, 1999, A Critique of Seven Assumptions behind Psychological Trauma Programmes in War-Affected Areas, Social Science and Medicine, 48: 1449-1462

R L. J. Nicholas, 2000, Expert Witness Testimony in the Criminal Trial of Eugene de Kock: A Critique of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Defense, South African Journal of Psychology, 30 (1): 33-37

Arthur Kleinman, 1988, The Illness Narratives: Suffering, Healing & the Human Condition, New York: Basic Books

Allen Young, 1995, The Harmony of Illusions: Inventing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pages 13-142

Eric Dean, 1997, Shook Over Hell: Post-Traumatic Stress, Vietnam, and the Civil War, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press

Ben Shephard, 2001, A War of Nerves: Soldiers and Psychiatrists 1914-1994, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press

Arthur Kleinman, 1988, Rethinking Psychiatry: From Cultural Category to Personal Experience, New York: The Free Press

Anne Fadiman, 1997, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux

Patrick Bracken & Celia Petty, eds., 1998, Rethinking the Trauma of War, London: Free Association Books

Allen Young, 1995, The Harmony of Illusions: Inventing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pages 143-290

Bessel van der Kolk, Alexander McFarlane & Lars Weisaeth, eds., 1996, Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body and Society, New York: The Guilford Press

Marilyn Bowman, 1997, Individual Differences in Posttraumatic Response: Problems with the Adversity-Distress Connection, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Rachel Yahuda & Alexander McFarlane, 1997, Psychobiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821: 1-550

Robben, A. C., & Suarez-Orozco, M. M. (Eds.). (2000). Cultures under siege: Collective violence and trauma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Identifying and Intervening Against PTSD and Other Stress Disorders

R Foa, E.B. & Meadows, E.A. (1997). Psychosocial treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder: A critical review. In J. Spence (Ed.), Annual Review of Psychology (pp. 449-480), Vol. 48. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews Inc.

R Foa, E. B., & Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing of fear: Exposure to corrective information. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 20-35.

Foa, E. B. & Rothbaum, B. O. (1998). Treating the Trauma of Rape. New York: Guilford Publications, Inc.

Rothbaum, B. O. & Foa, E. B. (1999). Reclaiming Your Life After Rape. New York: The Psychological Corporation.

J. Marsella, A. J., Friedman, M. J., Gerrity, E. T., & Scurfield, R. M. (Eds.). (1996). Ethnocultural aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder: Issues, research, and clinical applications. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Foa, E.B., Zinbarg, R., et al. (1992). Uncontrollability and unpredictability in post-traumatic stress disorder: An animal model. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 218-38.

Jaycox, L.H., Foa, E.B., et al. (1998). Influence of emotional engagement and habituation on exposure therapy for PTSD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Pschology, 66, 185-92.

Kushner, M.G., Riggs, D.S., et al. (1993). Perceived controllability and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in crime victims. Behavior Research and Therapy, 31, 105-10.

van der Kolk, B.A. (1997). The psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58(Suppl 9)): 16-24.

van der Kolk, B.A., Greenberg, M.S., et al. (1989). Endogenous opiods, stress induced analgesia, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 25, 417-21.

Foa, E.B., Dancu, C.V., et al. (1999). A comparison of exposure therapy, stress innoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumataic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 194-200.

van der Kolk, B.A., & Greenberg, M.S. (1985). Inescapable shock, neurotransmitters, and addiction to trauma: toward a psychobiology of post traumatic stress. Biological Psychiatry, 20, 314-325.

Bolstad, B.R., & Zinbarg, R.E. (1997). Sexual victimization, generalized perception of control, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11, 523-540.

Ton-That, N. (1998). Post-traumatic stress disorder in Asian refugees. Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 52 (Suppl): S377-9.

Thabet, A.A., & Vostanis, P. (1999). Post-traumatic stress reactions in children of war. Journal of Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 40, 385-91.

Jaycox, L. H., & Foa, E. B. (1998). Post-traumatic stress disorder. In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.), Comprehensive clinical psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 499-517). Oxford: Pergamon.

Milgram, N. A. (1998). Victims of war. In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.), Comprehensive clinical psychology (Vol. 9, pp. 391-406). Oxford: Pergamon.

WEEK 7 Addressing the Conflict Experience II: Refugees and Rebuilding Community

Psychosocial Interventions with Refugee Populations

R Ager, A. (1999). Perspectives on the refugee experience. In A. Ager (Ed.), Refugees: Perspectives on the experience of forced migration (pp. 1-23). London: Pinter.

R Maynard, K. A. (1999). Healing communities in conflict: International assistance in complex emergencies. New York: Columbia University Press. (pp. 59-82).

R Martin, S. F. (1994). A policy perspective on the mental health and psychosocial needs of refugees. In A. J. Marsella, T. Bornemann, S. Ekblad, & J. Orley (Eds.), Amidst peril and pain: The mental health and well-being of the world's refugees (pp. 69-80). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Marsella, A. J., Bornemann, T., Ekblad, S., & Orley, J. (Eds.). (1994). Amidst peril and pain: The mental health and well-being of the world's refugees. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Daniel, E. V., & Knudsen, J. C. (Eds.). (1995). Mistrusting refugees. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Mertus, J., Tesanovic, J., Metikos, H., & Boric, R. (Eds.). (1997). The suitcase: Refugee voices from Bosnia and Croatia. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Nikolic-Ristanovic, V. (Ed.). Women, violence and war: Wartime victimization of refugees in the Balkans. Budapest: Central European University Press.

The Refugee Experience: Mediating the Impact of Forced Migration and Displacement on Children

R Sommers, Marc. The Children's War: Toward Peace in Sierra Leone. Women's Commission Report, 1997

R Sommers, Marc. A Child's Nightmare: Burundian Children at Risk. Women's Commission Report, 1998

R Protecting the Rights of Children: The Need for U.S. Children's Asylum Guidelines. Women's Commission Report, 1998.

R Convention on the Rights of the Child (adopted 1989). United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

Loescher, G., & Loescher, A. D. (1994). The global refugee crisis: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Martin, S. F. (1995). Refugee women. London: Zed Books.

Van Hear, N. (1998). New diasporas: The mass exodus, dispersal and regrouping of migrant communities (Global Diasporas, No. 2). London: UCL Press.

Fritz, M. (1999). Lost on Earth: Nomads of the New World. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co.

Nicholson, F., & Twomey, P. (Eds.). Refugee rights and realities: Evolving international concepts and regimes. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cohen, R., & Deng, F. M. (1998). Masses in flight: The global crisis of internal displacement. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

Soguk, N. (1999). States and strangers: Refugees and displacements of statecraft. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Hyndman, J. (2000). Managing displacement: Refugees and the politics of humanitarianism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Lammers, E. (1999). Refugees, gender and human security: A theoretical introduction and annotated bibliography. Netherlands: International Books.

USA, Europe and Local Professional: Different Approaches to Psychosocial Programs and Rape in the Balkans

R Doubt, K. (2000). Sociology after Bosnia and Kosovo. N.Y.: Rowman and Littlefield Pubs. Inc.

R Rape is a War Crime. Conference Report. Vienna June 1999. EU and ICMPD ( Migration and Policy Development).

R Richter, E. (Ed.). (1998). In the Aftermath of Rape. Women’s Rights, War Crimes and Genocide. CWA (Coordination of Women’s Advocacy).

R Agger, I and Mimica, J. (1996). Psychosocial assistance to victims of war. ECHO, European Community Humanitarian Office.

Chandler, D. (1999). Bosnia, Faking democracy after Dayton. London: Pluto Press.

Bouatta, C. (2000). “Le viol: Un polytraumatisme”. Societe Algerienne de Recherche en Psychologie, no. 8.

Kos, A. (1998). They talk, we listen. Ljubjana: UNHCR and Slovenska Fondacija.

Witness Protection, Gender and War crimes. (1997). CWA (Coordination of Women’s Advocacy).

Approaches and Issues in Post-Conflict Community Rebuilding and Reconciliation

R Adam, H. & K. Adam. (2001). The Politics of Memory in Divided Societies. In W. James & L. VD Vijver (Eds.), After the TRC: Reflections on Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa (pp. 32-47). Ohio University Press, Athens.

R Boraine, A. (2001). The Language of Potential. In W. James & L. VD Vijver (Eds.), After the TRC: Reflections on Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa (pp. 73-81). Ohio University Press, Athens.

R Rassool, C., L. Witz & G. Minkley. (2001). Burying and Memorializing the Body of Truth: The TRC and National Heritage. In W. James & L. VD Vijver (Eds.), After the TRC: Reflections on Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa (pp. 115-127). Ohio University Press, Athens.

R Hayner, P. (2000). Same species, different animal: how South Africa compares to truth commissions worldwide. In C. Villa-Vicencio & W. Verwoerd (Eds.), Looking Back Reaching Forward: Reflections on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa (pp. 32-41). University of Cape Town Press, Cape Town.

R Gerwel, J. (2000). National reconciliation: Holy grail or secular pact? In C. Villa-Vicencio & W. Verwoerd (Eds.), Looking Back Reaching Forward: Reflections on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa (pp. 277-286). University of Cape Town Press, Cape Town.

R Boraine, A. (2000). Beyond the TRC: The South African model and the international community (Ch.11) and Conclusions (Ch.12). In A. Boraine (Ed.), A Country Unmasked (pp. 379-442). Oxford University Press, New York.

R IJR Report on Reconciliation Survey Research. The Institute of Justice and Reconciliation. Rondebosch, Cape Town.

R Dealing with the Past: A Memorial for the Cradock Four. Cape Times, 26 November 2000.

Brooks, R. (1999). The Age of Apology. In R. Brooks (Ed.), When Sorry Isn't Enough: The Controversy over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice (pp. 3-11). New York University Press, New York.

Verwoerd, W. (1999). Justice after Apartheid. In R. Brooks (Ed.), When Sorry Isn't Enough: The Controversy over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice (pp. 479-486). New York University Press, New York.

The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Special Issue Vol 26, 2000. Psychology in Society, Congella, South Africa.

Yamamoto, E. K. & S. Serrano. (1999). Healing Racial Wounds? The Final Report of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission. In R. Brooks (Ed.), When Sorry Isn't Enough: The Controversy over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice (pp. 492-500).New York University Press, New York.

Mamdani., M. (1998). When does Reconciliation turn into a Denial of Justice. HSRC Publishers, Pretoria.

Tavuchis, N. (1991). Meanings, Nature, and Functions of Apology. In Tavuchis, N. Mea Culpa: A Sociology of Apology and Reconciliation (pp. 15-44). Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

Norval, A. (1998). Memory, Identity and the (Im)possibility of Reconciliation: The Work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa. Constellations, Vol. 5 No.2, pp. 250-265).

WEEK 8 Evaluating Interventions: Research Strategies, Obstacles, and Ethics

Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evaluations of Mental Health Interventions

R Van Ommeren M, De Jong JTVM, Sharma B. (2001). Psychiatric disorders among tortured Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 475-482.

R North, C.S. (2001) Commentary: The toll of refugee status and the state of trauma research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 483-484.

R Hennekens, C.H., & Buring, J.E. (1987). Epidemiology in medicine. Boston: Little, Brown. Section II. Types of epidemiologic studies. Chapters 5-8.

R Somasundaram, D. J. (1993). Psychiatric morbidity due to war in Northern Sri Lanka. In J.P Wilson & B. Raphael (Eds.), International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes. New York: Plenum. Chapter 28, pp. 338-348.

R Gupta, L. (1996, 25 Feb). Exposure to war related violence among Rwandan children and adolescents: A brief report on the National Baseline Trauma Survey. Kigali, Rwanda: UNICEF Trauma Recovery Programme. 7pp.

R Tennant, C.C., Goulston, K., Dent, O. (1993). Medical and pschiatric consequences of being a prisoner of war of the Japanese: An Australian follow-up survey. In J. P. Wilson & B. Raphael (Eds.), International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes. New York: Plenum. Chapter 19, pp. 231-239.

R Mollica, R.F., Donelan, K., Tor, S., Lavelle, J. Elias, C. Frankel, M., & Blendon, R.J. (1993). The effect of trauma and confinement on functional heatlh and mental health status of Cambodians living in Thailand-Cambodia border camps. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270, 581-586.

R Wardak, A.W.H. (1993). The psychiatric effects of war stress on Afghanistan society. In J. P. Wilson & B. Raphael (Eds.), International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes. New York: Plenum. Chapter 29, pp. 349-364.

R Quirk, G.J., & Casco, L. (1994). Stress disorders of families of the Disappeared: A controlled study in Honduras. Social Science and Medicine, 19, 1675-1679.

R Raine, A., Brennan, P., Mednick, S.A. (1994). Birth complications combined with early maternal rejection at age 1 year predispose to violent crime at age 18 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 984-988.

R Olds, D., Henderson, C.R., Cole, R., Eckenrode, J., Kitzman, H., Luckey, D., Pettitt, L., Sidora, K., Morris, P.,& Powers, J. (1998). Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on childrens'scriminal and antisocial behavior: 15 year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280, 1238-1244.

Frechtling, J., & Sharp, L. (Eds.) (1997). User-friendly handbook for mixed method evaluations (NSF97-153). Washington, D.C.: GPO.

McCauley, C., & Bremer, B. (1991). Subjective quality of life measures for evaluating medical intervention. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 14, 371-387.

Mixed Method Evaluations of Mental Health Interventions

R Chemtob, C.M., Tomas, S., Law, W., and Cremniter, D. (1997). Postdisaster psychological intervention: A field study of the impact of debriefing on psychological distress. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 415-417.

R Hennekens, C.H., & Buring, J.E. (1987). Epidemiology in medicine. Boston: Little, Brown. (Chapter 8)

R Trauma Recovery Program. (1995 April). Alleviating trauma in school: Report after a teacher training, and evaluation on trauma alleviation in schools in Kigali. Kigali, Rwanda: UNICEF. 4pp.

Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. (1994). The program evaluation standards, 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Webb, E. J., et al. (1966). Unobtrusive measures: nonreactive research in the social sciences. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Barrett, C. B., & Cason, J. W. (1995). Facing the field: a practical guide to overseas social science research. University of Wisconsin: Global Studies Research Program.

Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues for field settings. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Boruch, R., & Foley, E. (In press). The honestly experimental society: sites and other entities as the units of allocation and analysis in randomized experiments. In. L. Bickman (Ed.), Validity and social experimentation: Donald T. Campbell's legacy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dennis, M., & Boruch, R. F. (1989). Randomized experiments for planning and testing projects in developing countries: threshold conditions. Evaluation Review, 13, 292-309.

Qualitative Methods in Cross-cultural Mental Health Assessment

R Spradley, J. P. (1979). The ethnographic interview (Chaps. 1-3 & Part 2, Step 2). NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers.

R Green, B. L. (1996). Cross-national and ethnocultural issues in disaster research. In A. J. Marsella, M. J. Friedman, E. T. Gerrity, & R. M. Scurfield (Eds.), Ethnocultural aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder: Issues, research, and clinical applications (pp. 341-362). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Methods and Results of Mental Health Assessments in Rwanda and Uganda

Ormel et al. (1999). Onset of disability in depressed and non-depressed primary care patients. Psychological Medicine, 29, 847-853.

Mauskopf et al. (1996). Functional Status in depressed patients: the relationship to disease severity and disease resolution. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 57, 588-592.

WEEK 9 Managing / Resolving Ethnic Group Differences

Political Designs I: Multicultural Liberalism and Integration

R McGarry, J. and O’Leary, B. (1993). The politics of ethnic conflict regulation. London: Routledge. (pp. 4-38)

R Kymlicka, W. (2001). Politics in the vernacular. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (pp 17-38)

McGarry, J. and O’Leary, B. (1994). The political regulation of national and ethnic conflict. Parliamentary Affairs, 47, 94-115.

Waltzer, M. (1997). The politics of difference: Statehood and toleration in a multicultural world. In R. McKim and J. McMahan (Eds.) The morality of nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 245-257.

Political Designs II: Self-Determination and Secession

R Moore, M. (2001). The ethics of nationalism. Chapters 6-8. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (pp. 137-252)

Orentlicher, D.F. (1998). Separation anxiety: International responses to ethno-separatist claims. Yale Journal of International Law, 23, 1-78.

Political Designs III: Control, Partition, and Hegemony

R Lustick, I. S. (1996). Hegemonic beliefs and territorial rights. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20, 479-492.

R Byman, D. L. (1997). Divided they stand: Lessons about partition from Iraq and Lebanon. Securities Studies, 7 (Autumn 1997), 1-29.

R Kumar, R. (1997). The troubled history of partition. Foreign Affairs, 76, 22-34.

R Letter responding by I. Lustick, Foreign Affairs, 76, 152-153.

Lustick, I. (1980). Arabs in the Jewish state: Israel's control of a national minority. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Lustick, I. (1979). Stability in deeply divided societies: consociationalism vs. control. World Politics, 31, 325-344.

Lustick, I. (1993). Unsettled states, disputed lands. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Hannum, H. (1998). The specter of secession. Foreign Affairs, 77, 13-19.

Barkey, H., & Fuller, G. (1998). Turkey's Kurdish question. Lanharn, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Vintage Books.

Mearsheimer, J., & Van Evera, S. (1995). When peace means war: the partition that dare not speak its name. New Republic, 213, p. 16-19.

Laitin, D. (1986). Hegemony and culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Political Designs IV: Self-Governance and Regional Integration

R Danspeckgruber, W. (2001). The model of self-governance and regional integration as an instrument to enhance peace, stability, and prosperity. Manuscript.

R Druckman, D. (1996). Negotiating in the international context. In I. W. Zartman & J. L. Rasmussen, (Eds.), Peacemaking in international conflict: Methods and techniques, pp. 81-123. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press

R Bercovitch, J. (1996). Mediation in international conflict. In I. W. Zartman & J. L. Rasmussen, (Eds.), Peacemaking in international conflict: Methods and techniques, pp. 125-153. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press

WEEK 10 Problem-Solving Conflict Resolution Approaches

R Kelman, H. (2001). The role of national identity in conflict resolution. Manuscript.

R Burton, J. (1987). Resolving deep-rooted conflict: A handbook. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. (pp. 3-28).

R Kelman, H. (2000). Informal mediation by the scholar/practitioner. In E. Weiner, & A. B. Slifka, (Eds.). The handbook of interethnic coexistence, pp. 310-331. New York: Continuum Publishing.

R Kelman, H. (1996). Sociol-psychological dimensions of international conflict. In I. W. Zartman & J. L. Rasmussen, (Eds.), Peacemaking in international conflict: Methods and techniques. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press