Solomon Asch Center for Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict
Solomon Asch Center 2005 Summer Institute Syllabus

Required and Recommended Readings


Module 1.  Case Studies of Ethnopolitical Conflict 

Case Study I: Northern Ireland

Required Reading:

McGarry, J. & O’Leary, B. (2004). The Northern Ireland conflict: Consociational engagements. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Chapter 5)

O'Leary, B., Grofman, B., & Elklit, J. (2005). Divisor methods for sequential portfolio allocation in multi-party executive bodies: Evidence from Northern Ireland and Denmark. American Journal of Political Science, 49, 198–211.

O’Leary, B. (2005). Mission accomplished? Looking back at the IRA. Field Day Review, 1, 217-246.

Bruce, S. (2001). Terrorists and politics: The case of Northern Ireland's loyalist paramilitaries. Terrorism and Political Violence, 13, 27-48.


Case Study II: Israel/Palestine


Required Reading:


Tessler, M. (1994). A history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Bloomington: Indiana Press. (Chapter 5)


Bialik, C. N. “City of Slaughter.”


CZA L2/94/I (undated and unsigned press report). Beware the Zionist danger.


Laqueur, W., & Rubin, B. (Eds.). (2001). The Israel-Arab reader: A documentary history of the Middle East conflict. New York: Penguin Putnam. (Excerpts from Likud Platform, March 1977)


Dayan, M. (1968). Soldier reflects on peace hopes (text of an address to a graduating class at the Israel Army Staff and Command College). Jerusalem Post (September 27).


Arlosoroff, C. (1948). Reflections on Zionist policy. Jewish Frontier, October, 49-53. (Letter originally published 30 June 1932)


Inbar, E. (1991). Israel’s small war: The military response to the Intifada. Armed Forces & Society, 18, 29-50.


Lustick, I. S. (2002). Through blood and fire shall peace arise. Tikkun Magazine (May/June).


Said, E. (2001). Strategies of hope & What can separation mean? In The End of the Peace Process: Oslo and after (pp. 193-199, 327-330)


Shikaki, K. (2002). Palestinians divided. Foreign Affairs (January/February).


Eidelberg, P. (2004). Not for the spineless. Retrieved from on April 29, 2005.


Eidelberg, P. (2004). Anyone for God? Retrieved from on April 29, 2005.


Kidron, P. (1988). Truth whereby nations live. In E. Said and C. Hitchens, (Eds), Blaming the victims:  Spurious scholarship and the Palestinian question. London: Verso.


Islamic Resistance Movement. (1988). The Charter of Allah: The Platform of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas). Retrieved from on April 29, 2005.


Case Study III: Rwanda


Required Reading:                                         


The Economist (Mar 25th, 2004) Rwanda, remembered: Lessons of a genocide.

Prunier, G. (1997). The Rwandan Crisis: History of a Genocide New York: Columbia University Press. (Genocide and Renewed War: 6 April-14 June 1994)



Module 2.  Theories of Ethnic Conflict and Conflict Management


Theories and Approaches to National and Ethnic Identity


Required Reading:    


Brass, P. (1996). Ethnic groups and ethnic identity formation. In J. Hutchinson & A. Smith (Eds.), Ethnicity (pp. 85-90). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Horowitz, D. L. (2003). The primordialists. In D. Conversi (Ed). Ethnonationalism in the modern world: Walker Connor and the study of nationalism (pp. 72-82). London: Routledge.


Smith, A. D. (1998). Myths and memories of the nation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (pp. 57-96)


Weber, E. (1976). Peasants into Frenchmen: the modernization of rural France, 1870-1914. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. (pp. 485-496)


Suny, R. G. (2001). Constructing primordialism: Old histories for new nations. Journal of Modern History, 73, 862-896.

Eller, J. & Coughlan, R. (1993). The poverty of primordialism: the demystification of ethnic attachments. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 16, 183-202.


Structural and Interest Theories of Ethnic Conflict


Required Reading:    


Hardin, R. (1995). One for all: The logic of group conflict. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. (pp. 3-25)


Taylor, D. M., & Moghaddam, F. M. (1994). Theories of intergroup relations: International social psychological perspectives (2nd Edition). New York: Praeger. (pp. 35-60)


Axelrod, R. (1984). The evolution of cooperation. New York: Basic Books. (Chapters 1, 2, & 4)




Ross, M.H. (1993). Political conflict and the structure of society. Chapter 3 in The culture of conflict: Interpretations and interests in comparative perspective.. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. (pp. 33-50).


Sherif, M., O. J. Harvey, O. J., White, B. J., Hood, W. R., & Sherif, C. W. (1961). Intergroup conflict and cooperation: The Robbers’ Cave experiment. Norman, OK: Oklahoma Book Exchange.


LeVine, R.A. & Campbell, D.T. (1972). Realistic group conflict theory (Chapter 3, pp. 29-42). In Ethnocentrism: Theories of conflict, ethnic attitudes and group behavior. New York: John Wiley.


Brewer, M., & Brown, R. (1998). Intergroup relations. In D. T. Gilbert, S .T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, 4th Edition, Volume II (pp. 554-594). New York: McGraw-Hill.


Psychocultural Theories of Ethnic Conflict


Required Reading:    


Ross, M. H. (1993). The management of conflict: Interpretations and interests in comparative perspective. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. (pp. 1-34)
Ross, M. H. (2002). The political psychology of narratives: September 11 and beyond. In C. Calhoun, P. Price & A. Timmer (Eds.), Understanding September 11 (pp. 303-20 & 422-27). New York: New Press.

Volkan, V. (1997). Blood lines: From ethnic pride to ethnic terrorism. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. (pp. 3-49)




Ross, M. H. (2001). Psychocultural interpretations and dramas: Identity dynamics in ethnic conflict. Political Psychology, 22, 157-178.
Ross, M .H. (1995). Psychocultural interpretation theory and peacemaking in ethnic conflicts. Political Psychology, 16, 523-544.
Ignatieff, M. (1995). Nationalism and the narcissism of minor differences. Queen's Quarterly, Spring, 13-26.
Volkan, V. (1985). The need to have enemies and allies: A developmental approach. Political Psychology, 6, 219-247.


Conflict Management: Implications of Structural and Psychocultural Theories


Required Reading:    


Fearon, J., & Laitin, D. (1996). Explaining interethnic cooperation. American Political Science Review, 90, 715-735.


Kelman, H. (1986). Overcoming barriers to negotiation of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Journal of Palestine Studies, 16, 13-28.


Volkan, V. D. (1999). Psychoanalysis and diplomacy: Part I. Individual and large group identity. Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 1, 29-55.


Ross, M. H. (2000). Creating the conditions for peacemaking: Theories of practice in ethnic conflict resolution. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 23, 1002-1034.


Ross, M. H. (2000). ‘Good-enough’ isn’t so bad: Success and failure in ethnic conflict management. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 6, 27-47.




Fisher, R. & Ury, W. (1982). Getting to yes.


Susskind, L. & Cruikshank, J. (1987) Breaking the impasse: Dealing with an angry public. Basic Books.


Montville, J. V. (1991). Psychoanalytic enlightenment and the greening of diplomacy. In V. D. Volkan, J. V. Montville & D. A. Julius (Eds.), The psychodynamics of international relationships. Volume II: Unofficial diplomacy at work (pp. 177-192). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Volkan, V. D. (1999). Psychoanalysis and diplomacy: Part I. Individual and large group identity. Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 1, 29-55.

O’Leary, B. (2001). Nationalism and ethnicity: Research agendas on theories of their sources and their regulation. In D. Chirot, & M. P. Seligman, (Eds.), Ethnopolitical warfare: causes, consequences, and possible solutions (pp. 37-48). Washington, DC: APA Books.


Case Study Applications of Structural and Psychocultural Theories


Required Reading:    


Ross, M. H. (2005). Dressed to Express: Muslim Headscarves in French Schools. (unpublished chapter)


Ross, M. H. (2005). Flags, Heroes and Statues: Inclusive versus Exclusive Identity Markers in the American South. (unpublished chapter)


Module 3.  The Politics of Identity for Groups and Individuals


Identities and Institutions


Required Reading:    


Dennett, D. C. (1991). Consciousness explained. Boston, MA: Little, Brown. (pp. 412-430)


Lustick, I. S. (1993). Unsettled states, disputed lands: Britain and Ireland, France and Algeria, Israel and the West Bank/Gaza. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. (pp. 1-6)


Nagel, J. (1994). Constructing ethnicity: Creating and recreating ethnic identity and culture. Social Problems, 41, 152-176.


Posner, D. N. (2004). The political salience of cultural difference:  Why Chewas and Tumbukas are allies in Zambia and adversaries in Malawi. American Political Science Review, 98, 529-546.




Simon, H. (1947). Administrative Behavior. (Chapts. V-VII).


David Laitin, "The Ogaadeen Question and Changes in  Somali Identity,"  Chapter 16 in State Versus Ethnic Claims: African Policy Dilemmas, Donald Rothchild and Victor A. Olorunsola, eds.


Russell Hardin, 1995, “Self-interest, group identity,”  Breton, A. Et. al. (eds), Nationalism and Rationality pp. 14-42


Vamik D. Volkan, “Psychoanalysis and Diplomacy:  Part I. Individual and Large Group Identity,” Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, Vol. I, no. 1 (1999) pp. 29-55.


Daniel Byman, “Forever Enemies?  The Manipulation of Ethnic Identities to End Ethnic Wars,” SECURITY STUDIES Vol. 9, no. 3, Spring 2000 pp. 149-190.


Barth, Fredrik.  Ethnic Groups and Boundaries (London:  Allen and Unwin, 1969).


Hegemonic Beliefs: Common Sense in Individuals and Groups


Required Reading:     


David, P. A. (1985). Clio and the economics of QWERTY. American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 75, 332-337.


Butler, J. (1997). The psychic life of power (Stanford: Stanford University Press. (pp. 132-150)


Geertz, C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books. (Chapters 2 & 14)




Michael A. Hogg and Craig McCarty, “Self-categorization and Social Identity,” in  Social Identity Theory:  Constructive and Critical Advances, Dominic Abrams and Michael A. Hogg (eds.), 1990, pp. 10-27.


H. Tajfel (1970) Experiments in intergroup discrimination,” Scientific American, 223, 96-102. 


Joseph Stalin, “The Nation” and “The National Movement” pp. 303-323.


Katherine Verdery, National Ideology Under Socialism:  Identity and Cultural Politics in Ceausescu’s Romania (1991)


The Origins of Ethnicity and The Hegemony of National Identity


Required Reading:    


Eley, G., & Suny, R. G. (1996). Introduction: From the moment of social history to the work of cultural representation. In G. Eley & R. G. Suny (Eds.), Becoming national (pp. 3-12). Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Lustick, I. S. (2002). Hegemony and the riddle of nationalism: The dialectics of nationalism and religion in the Middle East. Logos, 1, 18-24.


Chandra, K. (2004). Why ethnic parties succeed: Patronage and ethnic head counts in India. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. (pp. 33-46)


Johnson, G. R. (1997). The architecture of ethnic identity. Politics and the Life Sciences, 16, 257-262.




Walker Connor, "Beyond Reason:  The Nature of the Ethnonational Bond,” in Ethnonationalism:  The Quest for Understanding, pp. 195-209. (1994).


Eller and Coughlan (1993). “The Poverty of Primordialism:  The Demystification of Ethnic Attachments,” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 16, April, 183-202.


David D. Laitin, Hegemony and Culture


Anthony D. Smith, “Structure and persistence of ethnie,” in The Ethnicity Reader:  Nationalism, Multiculturalism, and Migration, Montserrat Guibernau and John Rex, eds. (1997)


Brubaker, Rogers. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe (Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1996).


Michael Hechter, “Nationalism and Rationality,” Studies in Comparative International Development Vol. 35, no. 1 (Spring 2000) pp.  3-19. 


Samuel Huntington, “Clash of Civilizations” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, no. 3 (Summer 1993)


Core Beliefs and Collective Worldviews


Required Reading:    


Eidelson, R. J., & Eidelson, J. I. (2003). Dangerous ideas: Five beliefs that propel groups toward conflict. American Psychologist, 58, 182-192.


Coleman, P. T. (2003). Characteristics of protracted, intractable conflict: Toward the development of a metaframework-I. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 9, 1-37.


Petersen, R. D. (2002). Understanding ethnic violence: Fear, hatred, and resentment in twentieth-century Eastern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Chapter 2)


Modeling Identity Formation, Stabilization, and Change


Required Reading:    


Chandra, K. (Ed.). (2001). Cumulative findings in the study of ethnic politics. APSA-CP, 12, 7-25. pp. 7-25.


Lustick, I. S. (2002). PS-I: A user-friendly agent-based modeling platform for testing theories of political identity and political stability. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulations, 5:


Lustick, I. S., Miodownik, D., & Eidelson, R. J. (2004). Secessionism in multicultural states: Does sharing power prevent or encourage it? American Political Science Review, 98, 209-230.




Cederman, Lars-Erik. Emergent Actors in World Politics:  How States and nations Develop and Dissolve (Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 1997)


Ian S. Lustick,  “Agent-Based Modelling of Collective Identity:  Testing Constructivist Theory” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Vol. 3, no. 1 (January 2000).


Joshua M. Epstein, "    "Agent-Based Computational Models and Generative Social Science," Complexity, Vol. 4, no. 5 (May-June 1999) pp. 41-60.


Robert Axelrod, The Complexity of Cooperation:  Agent-Based Models of Competition and Collaboration (Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 1997).


Module 4.  The Psychology of Ethnopolitical Conflict


Perceiving Human Groups: Stereotype and Essence


Required Reading:    


McCauley, C., Jussim, L., & Lee, Y.T. (1995). Stereotype accuracy: toward appreciating group differences. In Y. T. Lee, L. Jussim & C. McCauley (Eds.), Stereotype accuracy: toward an appreciation of group differences (pp. 292-313). Washington, D.C.: APA Books.


Leroi, A. M. (14 March 2005). A family tree in every gene. New York Times Op-Ed Page.


Haslam, N., Rothschild, L., & Ernst, D. (2004). Essentialism and entitativity: Structures of beliefs about the ontology of social categories. In V. Yzerbyt, C. Judd, & O. Corneille (Eds.), The psychology of group perception (pp. 61-78). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.


Ethnicity and Nationalism: The Psychology of Group Identification


Required Reading:    


McCauley, C. (2001). The psychology of group identification and the power of ethnic nationalism. In D. Chirot & M. Seligman (Eds.), Ethnopolitical warfare: causes, consequences, and possible solutions (pp. 343-362). Washington, DC: APA Books.


McCauley, C., Worchel, S., Moghaddam, F., & Lee, Y.T. (2004). Contact and identity in intergroup relations. In Y. T. Lee, C. McCauley, F. Moghaddam, & S. Worchel (Eds.), The psychology of ethnic and cultural conflict, (pp. 309-326). Westport, CT: Praeger.


Psychology of Intergroup Conflict


Required Reading:    


McCauley, C. (2000). How President Bush moved the U.S. into the Gulf War: Three theories of group conflict and the construction of moral violation. Journal for the Study of Peace and Conflict, 2000-2001 Annual Edition, 32-42.


Royzman, E., McCauley, C., & Rozin, P. (2004). From Plato to Putnam: Four ways of thinking about hate. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), The psychology of hate (pp. 3-35). Washington, D.C.: APA Books.


Terrorism: Individual, Group, Social Movement, and Cultural Perspectives


Required Reading:    


McCauley, C. (2002). Psychological issues in understanding terrorism and the response to terrorism. In C. Stout (Ed.), The psychology of terrorism, Volume III: Theoretical understandings and perspectives (pp. 3-30). Westport, CT: Praeger.


Atran, S. (2003). Genesis of suicide terrorism. Science, 299, 1534-1539.


McCauley, C. (1991). Terrorism research and public policy: an overview. In C. McCauley (Ed.), Terrorism research and public policy (pp. 126-144). London: Frank Cass.


Ethnic Riots and Genocide


Required Reading:    


Chirot, D., & McCauley, C. (under review). Why not kill all of them? The logic of mass political murder and finding ways of avoiding it. Princeton: Princeton University Press.


McCauley, C. (2001). Review of D. Horowitz's The Deadly Ethnic Riot. Journal of Conflict, Security and Development, 1, 164-168.


McCauley, C. (in press). Review of A. Varshney's Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India. Terrorism and Political Violence.


Module 5.  Working with Survivors of Violence and Refugees, Part I


Professionalism in Humanitarian Action


Required Reading:    


Donini, A., Minear, L., & Walker, P. (2004). The future of humanitarian action: Mapping the implications of Iraq and other recent crises. Disasters Journal, 26, 190-204.


Walker, P., &  Purdin, S. (2004). Birthing Sphere. The early history of the Sphere project. Disasters Journal, 26, 100-111.


Slim, H. (2002). By what authority? The legitimacy and accountability of non-governmental organisations. Journal of Humanitarian Assistance (Document Posted: 10 March 2002


Barry, J., & Jefferys, A. (2002). A bridge too far: Aid agencies and the military in humanitarian response. HPN Network Paper 37 (


Collinson, S., Bhatia, M., Evans, M., Fanthorpe, R., Goodhand, J., Jackson, S. (2002). Politically informed humanitarian programming: Using a political economy approach. HPN Network Paper 41 (




Moore, J. (Ed.). (1998). Hard choices: Moral dilemmas in humanitarian intervention. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield.

Smillie, I. & Minear, L. (2004). The Charity of Nations. Humanitarian Action in a Calculating World. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.


The Tsunami: A Case of a Celebrity Disaster


Required Reading:    


Walker, P. Wisner, B. Leaning, J. Minear, L. (2005). Smoke and mirrors: Deficiencies in disaster funding. British Medical Journal, 330, 247-250.


Morin. R. (2005). Aid from the gray lady? Washington Post (Sunday, March 13; Page B05).


David Rieff, D. (2005). Tsunamis, accountability and the humanitarian circus. Humanitarian Exchange, 29, 53-55. 


The Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (March 6).


Ekachai, S. This land is our land.      


An Introduction to Psychosocial Approaches, Part I


Required Reading:    


Ager, A. (1999). Perspectives on the refugee experience. In A. Ager (Ed.), Refugees: Perspectives on the experience of forced migration (pp. 1-23). London: Pinter.


van der Veer. G. (1998). The experiences of refugees. In Counseling and therapy with refugees and victims of trauma. NY: John Wiley & Sons. (pp. 1-26)


Weine, S. (2000). Survivor families and their strengths: Learning from Bosnians after genocide. Other Voices, v. 2, n. 1 (February).


Psychosocial Working Group (2004). A Conceptual Framework.


Summerfield, D. (2002). Effects of war: Moral knowledge, revenge, reconciliation, and medicalised concepts of "recovery." British Medical Journal, 325,1105-1107.




Thomas, E. & Rappaport, J. (1996). Art as a community narrative: A resource for social change (Chapter 16). In B. Lykes, A. Banuazi, R. Liem, & M. Morris, (Eds), Myths about the powerless. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.


Maynard, K. A. (1999). Communities in conflict (Chapter 5). In Healing communities in conflict: International assistance in complex emergencies. NY: Columbia University Press.


Somasundaram, D., Sivayokan & Joop de Jong (Eds). (2000). Helping (Chapter 1) and Tamil community and its traditional resources (Chapter 2). In Mental Health in the Tamil Community, Psychosocial Manual. Jaffna: TPO.


An Introduction to Psychosocial Approaches, Part II


Required Reading:    


Beristain, C. M., Donná, G., Paez, D., Pérez-Sales, P. & Fernandez, I. (In press). Rebuilding the social fabric: A critical approach to humanitarian aid (Translation by A. Sierra from original Spanish; 1999). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. (Introduction & Chapter 6)


Coomaraswamy, R. (2002). Sexual violence during wartime. Nethra (ICES, Colombo). vol. 5, n. 2. (April-June).


Galappatti, A. (2005). Psychosocial work in the aftermath of the tsunami. Batticaloa, Sri Lanka.


Psychosocial Support Program (2005). Guidelines for foreign psychosocial professionals doing post-tsunami work in Sri Lanka.




Martin Baro, I. (1994). The psychological value of violent political repression (Chapter 9) and Public opinion research as a de-ideologizing instrument (Chapter 11). In A. Aron, & S. Corne (Eds.), Writings for a liberation psychology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.


Agger, I. (1999). The role of psychosocial projects in the peace building process: The clean and the unclean. In Rape is a War Crime. Conference by ICMPD and the Odysseus Project, EU (June).


Cooke, B & Kothari, U. (2001). Participation: The new tyranny? NY: Zed Books.


Design and Evaluation of Psychosocial Programs, Part I


Required Reading:    


Beristain, C. M., Donná, G., Paez, D., Pérez-Sales, P. & Fernandez, I. (In press). Rebuilding the social fabric: A critical approach to humanitarian aid. (Translation by A. Sierra from original Spanish; 1999). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. (Chapters 1, 4, & 8)


Pérez-Sales, P. (2003). Mental health in disasters: The psychosocial approach. In T. Baubet, K. Le Roch, D. Bitar & M. R. Moro (Eds.) Soigner malgré tout, Tome 1: Trauma, cultures et soins [To look after despite everything, Vol. 1: Trauma, cultures and care] (pp. 113-122). Paris: Médecins Sans Frontiéres.




Vázquez, C., Cervellón, P, Pérez-Sales, P., Vidales, D. & Gaborit, M. (2005). Positive emotions in earthquake survivors in El Salvador (2001). Anxiety Disorders, 19, 313-328.


Vázquez, C., Matt, G. & Pérez-Sales, P. (Manuscript submitted). Post-traumatic stress reactions following the Madrid March 11 terrorist attacks: Epidemiological effects of exposure and use of multiple diagnostic criteria in a Madrid community sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress.


Pupavac, V. (2001, April). Pathologising populations and colonising minds: International psychosocial programmes in Kosovo. Manchester, U.K.: Paper for the 51st Political Studies Association Conference.


Hernández, P. (2002). Resilience in families and communities: Latin American contributions from the psychology of liberation. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 10, 334-343.


Asociación 11-M Afectados Terrorismo [Association of Persons Affected by the Terrorism of March 11]. (2004, December). Text of presentation by Pilar Manjon Gutiérrez to the Parliamentary Commission of Investigation. Madrid.


Design and Evaluation of Psychosocial Programs, Part II


Required Reading:    


Pérez-Sales, P. (2001). Keeping control over one’s own life: A participatory diagnosis in the shelters of Cafetalón and Santa Gertrudis – New San Salvador.  San Salvador: Médecins Sans Frontiéres.


Duncan, J. & Arnston, L. (2004). Children in crisis: Good practices in evaluating psychosocial programming. Washington, D.C.: Save the Children Federation.




Eyber, C. (2002). Psychosocial issues. FMO Thematic Research Guide series.


Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence. (2003). Mental health in emergencies: Mental and social aspects of health of populations exposed to extreme stressors. Geneva: World Health Organization.


Pan American Health Organization. (1999). Humanitarian assistance in disaster situations: A guide for effective aid. Washington, D.C.:  World Health Organization.


de Jong, J.T.V.M. (2002). Public mental health, traumatic stress and human rights violations in low-income countries: A culturally appropriate model in times of conflict, disaster and peace. In J. T. V. M. de Jong (Ed.) Trauma, war and violence: Public mental health in socio-cultural context (pp. 1-91). New York: Kluwer.


Module 6.  Working with Survivors of Violence and Refugees, Part II


Children and Armed Conflict


Required Reading:    


Garbarino, J., & Kostelny, K. (1996). The effects of political violence on Palestinian children's behavior problems: A risk accumulation model. Child Development, 67, 33-45.


Macksoud, M. S., & Aber, J. L. (1996). The war experiences and psychosocial development of children in Lebanon. Child Development, 67, 70-88.


Wessells, M. G., & Monteiro, C. (2001). Psychosocial interventions and post-war reconstruction in Angola: Interweaving Western and traditional approaches. In D. Christie, R. V. Wagner, & D. Winter (Eds.), Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st century (pp. 262-275). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.




Ahearn, F. (Ed.) (2000). Psychosocial wellness of refugees. New York: Berghahn.


Cairns, E. (1996). Children and political violence. Cambridge: Blackwell.


Machel, G. (2001). The impact of war on children. Cape Town: David Philip.


Ethics of Development: Workers & Academics


Required Reading:    


Anderson, M. (1999). Do no harm: How aid can support peace—or war. Boulder: Lynne Rienner. (pp. 23-76).




Bracken, P., & Petty, C. (Eds.)(1998). Rethinking the trauma of war. New York: Free Association.


Honwana, A. (1997). Healing for peace: Traditional healers and post-war reconstruction in Southern Mozambique. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 3, 293-305.


Psychosocial Realities of Migrants in a Foreign Land


Required Reading:    


van Willigen, L.(1992). Organization of care and rehabilitation services for victims of torture and other forms of organized violence: A review of current issues. In: M. Basoglu (Ed.). Torture and its consequences (pp. 277-298). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Bojholm, S., & Vesti, P. (1992). Multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of torture survivors. In: M. Basoglu (Ed.). Torture and its consequences (pp. 299-309). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Ortis, D. (2002). The blindfold’s eyes. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. (Chapter 1)


Kinzie, J. D., & Jaranson, J. M. (2001). Refugees and asylum-seekers. In E. Gerrity, T. M. Keane, & F. Tuma (Eds.), Mental health consequences of torture and related violence and trauma (pp. 111-118). New York: Plenum Press.


Basoglu, M., Jaranson, J. M., Mollica, R., & Kastrup, M. (2001). Torture and mental health: A research overview.. In E. Gerrity, T. M. Keane, & F. Tuma (Eds.), Mental health consequences of torture and related violence and trauma (pp. 35-59). New York: Plenum Press.


Human Rights and Psychosocial Work


Required Reading:    


Hamber, B. (2003). Healing. In Reconciliation after violent conflict A handbook. Stockholm International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.


Lykes, M. B., & Mersky, M. (forthcoming) Reparations and mental health: Psychosocial interventions towards healing, human agency, and rethreading social realities. In , P. de Greiff (Ed.), Repairing the past: Compensation for victims of human rights violations.


Lykes, M. B. (1996). Meaning making in a context of genocide and silencing.  In A. Banuazizi, M. B. Lykes, R. Liem, & M. Morris (Eds.), Myths about the powerless: Contesting social inequalities (pp. 159-178). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.


Sveaass, N., & Lavik, N. J. (2000). Psychological aspects of human rights violations: The importance of justice and reconciliation. Nordic Journal of International Law, 69, 35-52.




Sieder, R. (2001). War, peace, and the politics of memory in Guatemala. In N. Biggar (Ed.), Burying the past: Making peace and doing justice after civil conflict (pp. 184-206). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.


Fletcher, L., & Weinstein, H. (2002). Violence and social repair: Rethinking the contributions of justice to reconciliation.  Human Rights Quarterly, 24, 573-639.


Stover, E. & Weinstein, H. M. (2004). My neighbor, my enemy: Justice and community in the aftermath of mass atrocity. New York: Cambridge University Press.


Case Examples of Psychosocial Work


Required Reading:    


Cornwall, A. (1998). Gender, participation and the politics of difference. In I. Guijt, & M. K. Shah (Eds.) The myth of community: Gender issues in participatory development (pp. 46-57). London: Intermediate Technology Publications.


Lykes, M. B. (in collaboration with ADMI). (2001). Creative arts and photography in participatory action research in Guatemala. In P. Reason & H. Bradbury (Eds.). Handbook of action research: Participative inquiry and practice (pp. 363-371). Thousand Oaks and London: Sage.




Smith, S. E., & Willms, D. G., with Johnson, N. A. (Eds.). (1997). Deepening participatory action-research. In Nurtured by knowledge: Learning to do participatory action-research (pp. 173-263). New York: The Apex Press.


Module 7.  Political Regulation of National, Ethnic and Communal Differences


Genocide & Expulsions


Required Reading:    


Chalk, F. (1989). Genocide in the twentieth century: Definitions of genocide and their implications for prediction and prevention. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 4, 149-60.


Harff, B. (2003). No lessons learned from the Holocaust? Assessing risks of genocide and political mass murder since 1955. American Political Science Review, 97, 57-73.


Thornberry, P. (1991). The convention on genocide and the protection of minorities. In International Law and the Rights of Minorities. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (pp. 59-85)


Zolberg, A. R. (1983). The formation of new states as a refugee-generating process. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 467, 24-38.


Partitions & Secessions


Required Reading:    


Kaufmann, C. (1998). When all else fails: Ethnic population transfers and partitions in the twentieth century. International Security, 23, 120-56.


Sambanis, N. (2000). Partition as a solution to ethnic war: An empirical critique of the theoretical literature. World Politics, 52, 437-83.


Tullberg, J., & Tullberg, B. (1997). Separation or unity? A model for solving ethnic conflicts. Politics and the Life Sciences, 16, 237-48.


Gilbert, P. (1998). Communities real and imagined. Good and bad cases for national secession. In P. B. Lehning (Ed.), Theories of secession (pp. 208-228). London/New York: Routledge.


Horowitz, D. L. (1985). The logic of secessions and irredentas. In Ethnic groups in conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press. (pp. 229-290)


Assimilation, Integration, and Multiculturalism


Required Reading:    


Barry, B. (2001) The dynamics of identity: Assimilation, acculturation and difference. In Culture & Equality. Cambridge: Polity. (pp. 63-111)


Brubaker, R. (2001). The return of assimilation? Changing perspectives on immigration and its sequels in France, Germany, and the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 24, 531-548.


Fish, S. (1999). Boutique multiculturalism. In The trouble with principle (pp. 56-74). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Kymlicka, W. (1998). American multiculturalism in the international arena. Dissent (Fall), 73-79.


Levy, J. T. (1997). Classifying cultural rights. In I. Shapiro & W. Kymlicka (Eds.), Ethnicity and Group Rights (Nomos 39). New York: New York University Press. (pp. 22-66)




Required Reading:    


Lijphart, A. (1985). Consociational theory and its critics. In Power-sharing in South Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press. (pp. 83-117)


Lustick, I. S. (1997). Lijphart, Lakatos and consociationalism. World Politics, 50, 88-111.


McGarry, J., & O’Leary, B. (2004). The Northern Ireland conflict: Consociational engagements. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Chapters 1, 9, & 12)


Federation and Territorial Autonomy


Required Reading:    


Horowitz, D. L. (1985). Ethnic groups in conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Chapter 15, esp. 622-628)


Hechter, M. (2000). Containing nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Chapters 1 & 8)


Hale, H. (2004). Divided we stand: Ethnofederalism as problem and solution in divided societies. World Politics, 56, 165-93.


O'Leary, B. (2001). An iron law of federations? A (neo-Diceyian) theory of the necessity of a federal staatsvolk, and of consociational rescue (The 5th Ernest Gellner Memorial Lecture). Nations and Nationalism 7, 273-296.


Watts, R. L. (1998). Federalism, federal political systems, and federations. Annual Review of Political Science, 1, 117-137.


O’Leary, B., McGarry, J., & Salih, K. (Eds.). (2005). The future of Kurdistan in Iraq. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. (Chapters 2 & 4)