Summer Institute





Prepared by 

April Eaton and Dan Chirot

Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies

University of Washington


Allport, Gordon W. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley, Inc.

Allport aims to clarify the nature of human prejudice. He acknowledges several levels of causation, but focuses on psychological factors, stressing that only individuals can feel prejudice. Historical, cultural, and economic circumstances all exert their influence within the nexus of personality.

Anderson, Benedict R. O'G. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London and New York: Verso.

This book proposes that nationality and nationalism are cultural artifacts. To understand them we need to consider how they have come into historical being, how their meanings have changed over time, and why they command such emotional legitimacy. Anderson argues that the concepts of nationality and nationalism emerged towards the end of the 18th century, when several discrete historical forces converged. Once created, they became ‘modular’ – capable of being transplanted to a great variety of social and political terrains.

Bader, Veit-Machael. 1995. Rassismus, Ethnizitat, Burgerschaft. Soziologische und philosophische Überlegungen (Racism, Ethnicity, Citizenship. Sociological and Philosophical Considerations). Münster: Westfalisches Dampfboot.

Bader examines the problematic of ethnicity in connection with questions of racism and citizenship, understanding ethnicity as complex and contingent. He relates ethnicity to social structures and inequality and distinguishes between such configurations as ethnic categories, ethnic habitus, ethnic identity, and ethnic interest.

Balibar, Etienne and Immanuel Wallerstein. 1991. Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities. London: Verso.

Balibar and Wallerstein use a Marxist and post-Marxist perspective to examine the adequacy of the notions of race, nation, and class in explaining the divisions of the postcolonial world. They develop a concept of metaracism, asserting that cultural differences have become irreconcilable and foster ethnic conflict. The authors argue that the typical American sociology contrast of race and ethnic status vs. class is a mistaken analytic starting point; the origin of race and ethnic status in a national society is either migration from a different nation (usually working class immigrants moving from the periphery to the core in search of higher paying jobs), or internal colonialism. Thus it is the division of the global labor market into national segments with varying citizenship rights that creates status distinctions out of global class relations between core and periphery.

Banton, Michael. 1983. Racial and Ethnic Competition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Banton hypothesizes that racist individuals are acting rationally in the sense that they select from a range of alternatives, choosing those that offer them the greatest material or social benefits relative to the cost they incur. He maintains that the disappearance of ethnic and racial barriers will come only when those in control perceive material and social benefits for doing away with them.

Bell-Fialkoff, Andrew. 1996. Ethnic Cleansing. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Bell-Fiakoff traces the history of the practice of cleansing from its roots in antiquity to the present, noting how varied criteria – including race, gender, class, sexual preference, and religion – have been used to isolate and destroy particular social groups. He describes cleansing as part of a wider continuum of population removal, ranging from genocide to voluntary emigration, that represents a deliberate and forced removal of a particular population with a specific trait. The acceleration of cleansing in the 20th century is a consequence of the close relationship between cleansing and collective identity. Case studies include Bosnia, Burundi, Cyprus, Karabakh, Kosovo, Palestine, Russia, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, Transylvania, and Ulster.

Blalock, Hubert. 1982. Race and Ethnic Relations. Englewood, NJ: Prentice Hall.

This book’s orientation is theoretical rather than specific. It offers a concise (133 page) introduction to the sociological study of race and ethnic relations, discussing theories of prejudice, stratification in the labor market and education system, and concepts of intergroup conflict.

Bornschier, Volker and Peter Lengyel , eds. 1994. Conflicts and New Departures in World Society. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Contents: Volker Bornschier, Emergences and Conflict Dynamics in World Society; Peter Lengyel, The Democratic Peace; Bruce Russett, War, Politics and the Market :Reflections After the Great Potlatch; Georg Kohler, Armaments and Disarmament in the Post-Cold War Period: The quest For a Demilitarized and Nuclear-Free World; Marek Thee, The Role of the United Nations in the Post-Cold War Era; Johan Kaufmann, Dick Leurdijk, and Nico Schrijver, The Emerging Human Rights Environment in the Arab World; Jill Crystal, The World Bank and Expropriation Disputes in Africa; Adeoye Akinsanya, World Economic Integration and Political Conflict in Latin America; Michael Nollert, Genesis and Dynamics of Populist Regimes at the Periphery; Christian Suter, The Causes of Latin American Social Revolutions: Searching for Patterns in Mexico, Cuba, and Nicaragua; John Foran, Mexico’s Unsolved Crisis; Hanspeter Stamm, Social Perception of Environmental Problems: Destruction of Tropical Forests and Ethnic Protest Movements in Bolivia; H.C.F. Mansilla, Between Reform and Disaster: Options for Sub-Saharan Africa in the emerging Global Order; Julius O. Ihonvbere, The Globalization of Social Conflict; James Mittelman, Cycles of Hegemony and Labor Unrest in the Contemporary World System; Beverly J. Silver, Governmental Budgeting: A Computer Model of Conflict and Bargaining; Georg P Muller, Political Conflict and Labor Disputes at the Reform and Disaster: Options for Sub-Saharan Africa in The Emerging Global Order; Julius O. Ihonvbere, the Globalization of Social Conflict; James Mittelman, Cycles of Hegemony and Labor Unrest in the Contemporary World System ; Beverly J. Silver, Governmental Budgeting: A Computer Model of Conflict and Bargaining; Georg P. Muller, Political Conflict and Labor Disputes at the Core: An Encompassing Review for the Post-War Era Ethnic Nationalism and Regional Conflict.

Brass, Paul R. 1991. Ethnicity and Nationalism: Theory and Comparison. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Brass develops three theoretical themes: (1) ethnic identities are variable, (2) the relationship between elites and the state is critical, and (3) the process of ethnic identity formation and its transformation into nationalism is reversible because of the dynamics of external competition and the internal divisions and contradictions which exist within all groups of people, however defined. His arguments are instrumentalist in that they posit ethnic identity formation as a process created in the dynamics of elite competition within the boundaries determined by political and economic realities.

Brass, Paul. 1997. Theft of an Idol : Text and Context in the Representation of Collective Violence. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press.

This book focuses on specific instances of violence in their local contexts and questions the prevailing interpretations of them. Brass maintains that, out of many possible interpretations applicable to incidents of ethnic violence, government and the media select those that support existing power relations in state and society. Through case studies of several areas in India, he develops the argument that the publicized versions of many so-called caste and communal riots are constructions upon events that are usually open to many interpretations. The interpretations that become widely accepted are those that have a functional utility for dominant political ideologies.

Brubaker, Rogers. 1996. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

This is a book of essays linked by a common concern with the recasting of nationalist politics in post-Communist Europe and Eurasia. In the Part I, Brubaker develops the theoretical argument that nationalism can and should be understood without invoking ‘nations’ as substantial entities. Instead, we should view ‘nation’ as a practical category – a contingent event. To understand nationalism is to understand the ways in which the category "nation" can come to structure perception, inform thought and experience, organize discourse, and incite political action. The three essays in Part II develop historical and comparative perspectives on the national question in contemporary Europe.

Carment, David and Patrick James, eds. 1998. Peace in the Midst of Wars: Preventing and Managing International Ethnic Conflicts. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

Contents: David Carment And Patrick James, Ethnic Conflict At The International Level: Causation, Prevention, And Peacekeeping; Louis Kriesberg, The Phases Of Destructive Conflict: Communal Conflicts and Proactive Solutions; Stephen Ryan, Preventive Diplomacy, Conflict Prevention, and Ethnic Conflict; David G. Haglund and Charles C. Pentland, Ethnic Conflict and European Security: What Role for NATO and the EC?; Michel Fortmann, Pierre Martin, and Stephane Rousse, Trial by Fire: International Actors and Organizations in the Yugoslav Crisis; Alan James, Peacekeeping and Ethnic Conflict: Theory and Evidence; Stuart Kaufman, Preventing Ethnic Violence: Conditions for the Success of Peacekeeping; Frank Harvey, Deterrence Failure and Prolonged Ethnic Conflict: The Case of Bosnia; Alex Morrison, International Action and National Sovereignty: Adjusting to New Realities; David Carment and Patrick Jame, Ethnic Conflict at the International Level: an Appraisal of Conflict Prevention and Peacekeeping.

Chirot, Daniel. 1996. Modern Tyrants: The Power and Prevalence of Evil in Our Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

By comparing many examples from various parts of the world, Chirot seeks to answer the questions raised by the existence and persistence of the phenomenon of tyranny. He identifies the major types of modern tyranny and their common causes, concluding with a set of propositions that might allow us to spot emerging tyrannies in the future. Cases include Hitler, Stalin, Mao, The Khmer Rouge, Nicolae Ceausescu, Kim Il Sung, Saddam Hussein, the Duvaliers, Idi Amin, Jean-Bédel Bokassa, and ongoing situations in Argentina and Burma.

Chirot, Daniel & Reid, Anthony, eds. 1997. Essential Outsiders: Chinese and Jews in the Modern Transformation of Southeast Asia and Central Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Contents: Daniel Chirot, Conflicting Identities and the Dangers of Communalism; Anthony Reid, Entrepreneurial Minorities, Nationalism, and the State; Kasian Tejapira, Imagined Uncommunity: The Lookjin Middle Class and Thai Official Nationalism; Steven Beller,"Pride and Prejudice" or "Sense and Sensibility"? How Reasonable Was Anti-Semitism in Vienna, 1880-1939?; Victor Karady, Jewish Entrepreneurship and Identity under Capitalism and Socialism in Central Europe: The Unresolved Dilemmas of Hungarian Jewry; Edgar Wickberg, Anti-Semitism and Chinese Identity Options in the Philippines; Takashi Shiriaishi, Anti-Sinicism in Java’s New Order; Hillel J. Kieval, Middleman Minorities and Blood: Is There a Natural Economy of the Ritual Murder Accusation in Europe?; K.S. Jomo, A Specific Idiom of Chinese Capitalism in Southeast Asia: Sino-Malaysian Capital Accumulation in the Face of State Hostility; Gary G. Hamilton and Tony Waters, Ethnicity and Capitalist Development: The Changing Role of the Chinese in Thailand; Linda Y.C. Lim and L.A. Peter Gosling, Strengths and Weaknesses of Minority Status for Southeast Asian Chinese at a Time of Economic Growth and Liberalization.

Connor, Walker. 1994. Ethnonationalism: The Quest for Understanding. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Connor argues that scholars and policy makers underrate the influence of ethnonationalism’s passionate and nonrational qualities. The essays, written over the past three decades, represent an attempt to establish a secure methodological foundation for the study of these qualities. Part I reviews how various scholars have perceived ethnonationalism and its political consequences, Part II examines impediments to improving scholarship on ethnonationalism, and Part III discusses the inherent limitations of rational inquiry into the realm of group identity.

Diamond, Larry and Marc F. Plattner, eds. 1994. Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict, and Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Diamond and Plattner provide a selection of essays about the connection between nationalism and democracy. After an initial discussion of the interaction of nationalist ideology with democratic values, the editors assess the prospects for democratic accommodation in ethnically divided societies. Two propositions are discernible from the text: (1) opportunistic politicians often manipulate ethnic antagonism as a vehicle for mobilizing mass support, and (2) ethnic conflict can often be reconciled through a judicious implementation of federalism and constitutional guarantees for the protection of individual and collective rights. Contributors include Shlomo Avineri, Francis Fuluyama, and Donald L. Horowitz, and Ghia Hodia; case studies include Nigeria, India, and the Balkans.

Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Gellner interprets nationalism in terms of its social roots, located in the organization of industrial society. He asserts that a society’s affluence and economic growth depend on innovation, occupational mobility, the effectiveness of the mass media, universal literacy, and a comprehensive educational system. Taken together, these factors govern the relationship between culture and the state. Political units that do not conform to the principle of "one state, one culture" are more likely to be the objects of nationalistic activity.

Gellner, Ernest. 1994. Encounters with Nationalism. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Here Gellner takes a Weberian perspective to discuss how changes in communication and the mode of production, combined with the breakdown of local culture, can make kinship the dominant principle of social identification and give rise to a nationalism based in politicized ethnic culture. Acknowledging that economic development can be the motive or the enemy of nationalism and traditionalism can be the ally or the rival of ethnicity, this collection of essays aims to identify the sources of variety in these alignments.

Greenberg, Stanley B. 1980. Race and State in Capitalist Development. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Greenberg’s inquiry centers around an apparently unfulfilled expectation of conventional development models: that modernization leads to a steadily diminishing role for race and ethnic relations in social arrangements. The theoretical argument relates persisting divisions along these lines to "internal colonialism" that results from economic disparities within a society. Focusing on the behavior of major economic interests, the author generates expectations for each actor in the process of development. He then applies these to specific cases: Alabama, Israel, Northern Ireland, and South Africa. These case studies suggest that – especially in the early period of economic growth – dominant economic actors act to intensify racial divisions and domination. Racial domination is only undermined by a combination of outside market forces and ideas and by internal resistance from the oppressed groups themselves.

Greenfeld, Liah. 1992. Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Based on the Weberian concept of the social, Greenfeld argues that ideas about nations and nationalism are the constitutive elements of modernity. Modernity is thus defined by nationalism, not the other way around. The author conducts each analysis on three levels: political vocabulary, social relations, and structural constraints. By tracing the development of national identity and consciousness in England, France, Russia, Germany, and the United States, she aims to explain the evolution of a particular set of ideas and to show how they permeate the attitudes of relevant actors.

Gurr, Ted Robert and Barbara Harff. 1994. Ethnic Conflict in World Politics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Gurr and Harff introduce "a new era of ethnic challenges to world order and security" that has emerged since 1993. They first identify the main types of politically active ethnic groups and their strategies, then summarize the historical processes that explain why these groups are important actors in the international political arena. Comparative case studies include the Kurds in the Middle East and the Miskito Indians of Central America, the Chinese in Malaysia and the Turkish immigrants in Germany. The book concludes with a review of social science approaches to explaining communal conflict, and proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the ways internal and international conditions lead ethnic groups into conflict with states.

Hardin, Russell. 1995. One for All: The Logic of Group Conflict. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Hardin posits that a systematic exploitation of self-interest underlies group identification and collective violence. With examples ranging from Mafia disputes to ethnic violence in Ireland, Rwanda and Bosnia, he describes the social and economic circumstances that trigger this violence, arguing that social institutions should facilitate individual efforts to achieve personal goals, and favors government structures that prevent any ethnic group from having too much influence.

Heitmeyer, Wilhelm. 1997. Auf dem Weg von der Konsens-zur Konfliktgesellschaft. Bd 1: Was treibt die Gesellschaft auseinander? Bd 2: Was halt die Gesellschaft zusammen? (On the Way from the Consensus to the Conflict Society. Vol. 1: What Drives Society Apart? Vol. 2: What Holds Society Together?) Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.

In Volume 1, Heitmeyer and his collaborators examine anomic trends in German society, modifying Durkheim’s and Merton’s theories of social order and norms and their absence. Their discussion includes the phenomena of mistrust in democracy’s functional capability, sharpening social inequality, discrimination against ethnic and cultural minorities, right-wing extremist violence, and asymmetries related to capitalist globalization. Volume 2 seeks evidence and models of social cohesion and integration. Its contributors take varying positions on the relative merits of liberalism and communitarianism in essays on multiculturalism, democratic reform, new forms of social solidarity, and economic integration.

Horowitz, Donald L. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

This book systematically and comparatively explores the politics of ethnic conflict in Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Middle East. Part I is a theoretical discussion; Horowitz aims to understand the nature of ethnic affiliations and to devise an explanation of ethnic conflict that fits the observed regularities of that conflict. In Part II he focuses on identifying patterns of ethnic politics. Part III evaluates policies of conflict reduction.

Hosking. Geoffrey and George Schflin (eds.) 1997. Myths and Nationhood. New York: Routledge.

Contents: Joanna Overing, The Role of Myth: An Anthropological Perpective, or: ‘The Reality of the Really Made-Up’; George Schöpflin, The Functions of Myth and a Taxonomy of Myths; Anthony Smith, The ‘Golden Age’ and National Renewal; Sonja Puntscher Riekmann, The Myth of European Unity; Mary Fulbrook, Myth-Making and National Identity: The Case of the GDR; Susan-Mary Grant, Making History: Myth and the Construction of American Nationhood; Bruce Cauthen, The Myth of Divine Election and Afrikaner Ethnogenesis; Kieran Williams, National Myths in the New Czech Liberalism; Norman Davies, Polish National Mythologies, Agita Misane and Aija Priedite, National Mythology in the History of Ideas in Latvia: A View from Religious Studies; John D. Klier, The Myth of Zion Among East European Jewry; Andrew Wilson, Myths of National History in Balarus and Ukraine; Geoffrey Hosking, The Russian National Myth Repudiated.

Hunter, James Davison. 1991. Culture Wars: The Struggle to Define America. New York: Basic Books.

Hunter suggests that the conflict pervading US society is not a conflict between ethnic groups or economic classes, but warfare between culture classes, grounded in competing orthodox and progressivist moral visions. The orthodox moral camp roots its moral vision in an external, transcendant authority, while the progressivist camp finds it authority in reconstructions of historical faiths or philosophical traditions.

Ignatieff, Michael. 1994. Blood and Belonging: Journeys into the New Nationalism. London: Vintage.

Ignatieff contrasts the ideals of civic nationalism with those of ethnic nationalism. He suggests that nationalism itself is not the perpetrator of world political unrest; rather, the fault lies in exclusivist and defensive versions of community and homeland. Case studies include Yugoslavia, Germany, Ukraine, Quebec, the Kurdish struggle for a homeland, and the British Isles.

Juergensmeyer, Mark. 1993. The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Juergensmeyer’s portrayal of the new religious revolutionaries in the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, and Eastern Europe draws on recent interviews and fieldwork. He explores patterns of declining secular nationalism and rising religious activism in many parts of the world, with case studies from the Middle East, South Asia, and former Socialist countries. The book’s conclusion is devoted to the question of if and how secular nationalism’s assets, such as respect for human rights, can be made compatible with religious nationalism.

Kedourie, Elie. 1993 (1966). Nationalism. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Kedourie traces the philosophical foundations of nationalist doctrine, the conditions that gave rise to it, and the political consequences of its spread in Europe and elsewhere over the past two centuries. He describes nationalism as an ideology, contrasting it with constitutional politics. The new introduction reflects upon the relationship of the author’s argument to contemporary nationalist conflicts.

Lake, David A. and Donald Rothchild, eds. 1998. The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict: Fear, Diffusion, and Escalation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Contents: David A. Lake and Donald Rothchild, Spreading Fear: The Genesis of Transnational Ethnic Conflict; Timur Kuran, Ethnic Dissimilation and its International Diffusion; Stuart Hill, Donald Rothchild, and Colin Cameron, Tactical Information and the Diffusion of Peaceful Protests; Will H. Moore and David R. Davis, Transnational Ethnic Ties and Foreign Policy; James D. Fearon, Commitment Problems and the Spread of Ethnic Conflict; Stephen M. Saideman, Is Pandora’s Box Half Empty or Half Full? The Limited Virulence of Secessionism and the Domestic Sources of Disintegration; Sandra Halperin, The Spread of Ethnic Conflict in Europe: Some Comparative-Historical Reflections; Paula Garb, Ethnicity, Alliance Building, and the Limited Spread of Ethnic Conflict in the Caucasus; Donald Rothchild and David A. Lake, Containing Fear: The Management of Transnational Ethnic Conflict, Stephen D. Krasner and Daniel T. Froats, Minority Rights and the Westphalian Model; Cynthia S. Kaplan, Ethnicity and Sovereignty: Insights from Russian Negotiations with Estonia and Tartarstan; Edmond J. Keller, Transnational Ethnic Conflice in Africa; Bruce W. Jentleson, Preventive Diplomacy and Ethnic Conflict: Possible, Difficult, Necessary; I. William Zartman, Putting Humpty Dumpty Together Again; David A. Lake and Donald Rothchild, Ethnic Fears and Global Engagement.

Lijphart, Arend. 1977. Democracy in Plural Societies: a Comparative Exploration. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Lijphart maintains that it is difficult, but not impossible, to maintain stable democratic governments in countries with deep religious, ideological, linguistic, cultural, or ethnic cleavages. In his model of ‘consociational’ democracy, cooperation among the leaders of the different segments of the population counteracts the centrifugal tendencies inherent in a plural society. The author compares outcomes of and prospects for consociational democracy in Canada, Israel, Cyprus, Nigeria, Uruguay, Lebanon, Malaysia, and emerging states in Africa and the Caribbean.

Lustick, Ian. 1993. Unsettled States, Disputed Lands: Britain and Ireland, France and Algeria, Israel and the West Bank. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Lustick studies the incorporation of additional territories into existing states and the equally problematic process of how states relinquish control over territories. Its purpose is to explain patterns of similarity and difference in the expansion and contraction of a state by treating all states as institutions subject to laws governing all institutions. This book develops the theory that state expansion and contraction are closely related, but asymmetric political achievements. Comparisons include Israel and the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Britain and Ireland, and France and Algeria.

Mach, Zdzislaw. 1993. Symbols, Conflict, and Identity: Essays in Political Anthropology. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

This book deals with the problem of the formation, maintenance, and change of identity in contemporary complex societies. It focuses on the symbolic aspect of this process: the role of symbols and symbolic forms in relations between groups, and they protection and development of their identities. Zdzislaw first discusses theoretical issues concerning identity and the symbolic construction of models in the social world. He then draws upon his own and others’ research to presents illustrative case studies

McGarry, John and Brendan O'Leary (Eds). 1993. The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation. London: Routledge.

Contents: S.J.R. Noel, Canadian Responses to Ethnic Conflict: Consociationalism, Federalism, and Control; Dominic Lieven and John McGarry, Ethnic Conflict in the Soviet Union and its Successor States; Gurharpal Singh, Ethnic Conflict in India: A Case-Study of Punjab; Diane Mauzy, Malaysia: Malay Political Hegemony and ‘Coercive Consociationalism’; Brenday O’Duffy, Containment or Regulation? The British Approach to Ethnic Conflict in Northern Ireland; René Lemarchand, Burundi in Comparative Perspective: Dimensions of Ethnic Strife; George Schöpflin, The Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia; Michael Keating, Spain: Peripheral Nationalism and State Response; Heribert Adam and Kogila Moodley, South Africa: The Opening of the Apartheid Mind; Ralph R. Premdas, Balance and Ethnic Conflict in Fiji; Maureen Covell, Belgium: The Variability of Ethnic Relations.

Olzak, Susan. 1992. The Dynamics of Ethnic Competition and Conflict. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Olzak focuses on1877-1914: a period of massive immigration, economic turbulence, increasing industrialization, labor conflict, and shifting race relations. Violence against blacks rose dramatically; violence against white and Asian immigrants rose then subsided. Using daily newspaper accounts from the largest 77 US cities, the author reconstructs the exact timing of ethnic confrontations. The evidence suggests that the explanation of ethnic unrest is to be found in the competition process rather than in the degree of inequality or cultural differences between groups.

Park, Robert E. 1950. Race and Culture. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.

This volume of collected writings gathers twenty-nine articles, lectures, and introductions to books concerning the contacts of peoples different from each other in culture, race, or both. They apply a scheme of four basic processes of human interaction: competition, conflict, accommodation, and assimilation to the study of contacts of peoples and cultures.

Pincus, Fred L. and Howard H. Ehrlich (Eds.). 1994. Race and Ethnic Conflict: Contending Views on Prejudice, Discrimination, and Ethnoviolence. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Contents: Fred L Pincus and Howard J. Ehrlich, The Study of Race and Ethnic Relations; Beverly Daniel Tatum, Talking About Race, Learning About Racism; Bob Blauner, Talking Past Each Other: Black and White Languages of Race; Joe R Feagin and Clairece Booher Feagin, Theoretical Perspectives in Race and Ethnic Relations; Thomas F. Pettigrew, New Patterns of Prejudice: The Different Worlds of 1984 and 1964; Byron M. Roth, Social Psychology’s "Racism"; Fred L. Pincus, Does Modern Prejudice Exist: A comment on Pettigrew and Roth; Fred L. Pincus, From Individual to Structural Discrimination; William Julius Wilson: The Limited Visions of Race: Discrimination is not the Sole Problem; Joe R. Feagin, The Continuing Significance of Race: Antiblack Discrimination in Public Places; Joleen Kirschenman and Kathryn M. Neckerman,"We’d Love to Hire Them, But...": The Meaning of Race for Employers; Douglas S. Massey, Residential Segregation in American Cities; U.S. Commission on Civil Rights,Employment Discrimination Against Asian Americans; Evelyn Nakamo Glenn. Racial Ethnic Women’s Labor: The Intersection of Race, Gender, and Class Oppression; Evelyn Torton Beck, From "Kike" to "JAP": How Misogyny, Anti-Semitism, and Racism Construct the "Jewish American Princess"; Saskia Sassen, America’s Immigration "Problem," Milton M Gordon: Models of Pluralism" The New American Dilemma, James H. Johnson, Jr. and Melvin L. Oliver: "Interethnic Minority Conflict in Urban America: The Effects of Economic and Social Dislocations, Heidi Tarver: Language and Politics in the 1980s: The Story of US English; Letty Cottin Pogregin and Earl Ofari Hutchinson, A Dialogue on Black-Jewish Relations; Marilynn Rashid: Detroit: Demolished by Design, Timothy Bates, Traditional and Emerging Lines of Black Business Enterprise; Pyong Gap Min, Problems of Korean Immigrant Entrepreneurs; Earl Ofari Hutchinson, Black Capitalism: Self-Help or Self-Delusion?; Howard H Ehrlich: Campus Ethnoviolence; Edward Alexander, Race Fever; Diane Ravitch, Multiculturalism: E Pluribus Plures; Molefi Kete Asante, Multiculturalism: An Exchange;, Deborah Woo, The "Overrepresentation" of Asian-Americans: Red Herrings and Yellow Perils; Nathan Glazer, The Emergence of an American Ethnic Pattern; Howard Zinn, Representative Government: The Black Experience; Arch Puddington, The Question of Black Leadership; Manning Marable, Black Politics and the Challenges for the Left; Fred L. Pincus, The Case for Affirmative Action; William R. Beer, Resolute Ignorance: Social Science and Affirmative Action; Editors of The New Republic, Race Against Time; Edna Bonacich, Thoughts on Urban Unrest

Prunier, Gérard. 1995. The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide. New York: Columbia University Press.

This magisterial overview of the origins and complexities of the Rwandan genocide traces the history of the conflict back to the practices of colonial auhorities, first German then Belgian. Prunier makes the important point that Hutu and Tutsi are not tribes but something more like economic classes, with considerable permeability of group boundaries right up until the genocide began. The role of the government, including identity cards that were life and death for many Rwandans during the genocide, is examined to make clear that this was not simply a case of "age-old tribal enmities" bursting into violence.

Romanucci-Ross, Lola and George A. DeVoss, eds. 1995. Ethnic Identity: Creation, Conflict, and Accommodation (Third Edition). Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.

This third, completely revised edition offers social scientific analyses of subjective forces underlying ethnic identity and its maintenance, arguing that macrocultural forces alone are insufficient to explain ethnic persistence in the contemporary world system. The fifteen chapters are organized in six parts: (1) Concepts of Ethnic Identity; (2) Fabrication of New Ethnic Enclaves; (3) The Emergence of National States; (4) Conflicts Due to Exclusory Ethnicity in Nation-States; (5) Minority Inclusion/Exclusion and National Identity; and (6) Conclusion.

Smith, Anthony D. 1986. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Cambridge, Ma: Blackwell.

This book examines the social and historical roots of modern nations and the main features of contemporary national identity. Smith traces the genealogy of nations to premodern ethnic foundations. Part I offers an extensive investigation of different types of ethnic communities, myths, and resistance movements. Part II explores the formation and features of modern nations, positing that they have been reconstructed by intelligentsias from older ethnic ties and sentiments.

Smith, Michael Peter, and Joe R. Feagin, eds. 1995. Bubbling Cauldron: Race, Ethnicity, and the Urban Crisis. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press

This collection of 16 essays by leading sociologists and other scholars explores contemporary race relations in US cities. Case study and ethnographic methods are used to explore racial and ethnic antagonisms and consciousness as functions of sociopolitical interactions and structures. The chapters are organized into five Parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Social Construction of Racial and Ethnic Difference; (3) Race, Segregation, and the State; (4) Globalization and the New Boundaries of Race and Ethnicity; and (5) Race, Ethnicity, and Community Power.

Stavenhagen, Rodolfo. 1996. Ethnic conflicts and the Nation-State. New York: St. Martin's Press.

This book has many co-authors, but they chose to bring their material together in a topical, comparative manner rather than to prepare an edited volume. Its theme is that ethnic conflict poses serious challenges to developing societies. To deal with these issues, countries have embarked upon, or accommodated, major institutional and/or constitutional change. These encompass alterations in economic development strategies, public policy, and international relations. Case studies include Kurdistan, Lebanon, the Horn of Africa, Fiji, Guyana,n Malaysia, Burundi, Nigeria, Guatemala, and the former Soviet Union.

Tambiah, Stanley J. 1996. Leveling Crowds. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Tambiah investigates ethnonational conflict and the violence it engenders by presenting in-depth case studies of civilian riots in South Asia during the twentieth century. He situates collective violence in larger political, economic, and religious contexts. The book investigates the role of riots in encouraging as well as resisting nation-building, highlighting the relationship between ‘democratic’ politics and the orchestration of collective violence. It also explores interactions and social psychology that intensify violent passions within crowds.

Van den Berghe, Pierre L. 1987. The Ethnic Phenomenon. New York: Praeger.

Van den Berghe uses sociobiological ideas to explain the persistence of ethnicity and racism. He argues that the roots of ethnic and racial identification lie in the biologically determined racial identification lie in the biologically determined tendency of genes to maximize their own fitness by programming organisms to compete against and thus hinder the reproduction of organisms that carry alternative alleles of the genes. Few ethnic groups today consist exclusively of genetically related individuals; their kinship is basically ideological.

Van den Berghe, Pierre, ed. 1990. State Violence and Ethnicity. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado.

Contents: Leo Kuper, The Genocidal State: An overview; James E Mace, Genocide by Famine: Ukraine in 1932-1933; Zvi Gitelman, Power, Culture, and Ethnicity: The Soviet Jewish Experience; René Burundi, Ethnicity and the Genocidal State; Heribert Adam, Comparing Israel and South Africa: Prospects for Conflict Resolution in Ethnic States; Sammy Smooha, Israel’s Options for handling the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Lakshmanan Sabaratnam, Sri Lanka: The Lion and the Tiger in the Ethnic Archipelago; Russel Lawrence Barsh, Ecocide, Nutrition, and the "Vanishing Indian"; Pierre L. Van den Berghe, The Ixil Triangle: Vietnam in Guatemala

Williams, Robin Murphy and Madelyn B, Rhenisch. 1977. Mutual Accommodation: Ethnic Conflict and Cooperation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

This book focuses on interracial and interethnic relations in North America. Williams critically reviews the findings contained in three bodies of information: social science research; other published data and commentaries; and unpublished studies, judicial records, and interviews. He seeks to understand the processes through which race and ethnic relations change, particularly these changes lead to the resolution of social conflict. Drawing on past successes, the author suggests "workable solutions and avenues of favorable change" through mutual adjustment and conflict resolution.

Yinger, J. Milton. 1994. Ethnicity: Source of Strength? Source of Conflict? Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

This book addresses the questions of what is known about ethnicity, what goals should be pursued with regard to ethnicity in the US, and how these goals can be achieved. The author attempts to build a solid foundation for the analytical study of ethnicity, including both tragic and heartening facts that command attention, and explores definitions of ethnic groups. He defines ethnic assimilation as a process of boundary reduction that occurs when members of two or more societies, ethnic groups, or smaller social groups join each other. It is a multidimensional, multidirectional process, aspects of which can vary independently at different rates in different sequence. He contends that ethnicity is a major factor in the stratification of multiethnic societies, and that the political and social struggles of the disadvantaged are major forces for social change. It is thus a major task of society and government to negotiate social conflicts, emphasize shared goals and interdependence, and optimize quality of life for all.


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