MAPPING THE GENOME versus READING THE GENOME

I.) INTRODUCTION
What are you observing?

Movie1

Movie 2


Where is the Genome?


body to cell
cell to dna




II.) THE GENOME AS A BOOK

Imagine a GENOME as a Book
In the human book there are 23 chapters called CHROMOSOMES
Each chapter contains several thousand stories called GENES
Each story is made up of paragraphs called EXONS, which are interrupted by advertisements called INTRONS
Each paragraph is made up of words called CODONS
Each word is written in letters called BASES

Adapted from Genome by Ridley, 1999.                                                                                                         


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III.) THE GENOME AS A MAP




IV.) Dr. Tamara Davis on the Making of a Genome Map

A landscape with specific addresses can help medical researchers track down disease causing genes.
Interactive Genome Map for Diabetes Research



COFFEE BREAK

VI.) Touching DNA: Strawberry DNA Extraction

DNA Isolation using Strawberries (wear eye protection, or be careful). 

Working in groups, but each individual will do their own.

  1. Place 1 strawberry in the plastic bag.  Remove air and seal.
  2. Mash strawberry for 2 minutes.
  3. Add ~10 ml DNA Extraction buffer (Pre-measured).  Remove air and seal.
  4. Mash for 1 minute.
  5. Pour solution through coffee filter  into paper cup
  6. Pour ~2 ml of this solution back into the 15 ml tube.  It will be very red.
  7. Pour ~ 4 ml (2X the volume of strawberry solution) of cold ethanol (found on freeze door in 50 ml tubes) so that it lays on top of the strawberry solution. (NOTE: can use 1X volume of room temperature isopropanol, rubbing alcohol, as a substitute)
  8. If the tube just sits, there will be DNA at the interface with bubbles in it.  If you gently rock the tube, more will come out of solution and eventually float to the top. (NOTE: if the DNA doesn’t come out of solution at home, add a little more salt)

Extraction buffer:

            100 ml shampoo without conditioner or dishwashing liquid

            900 ml distilled water

            15 grams NaCl

Supplies:

Frozen Strawberries:     allow to come to room temperature, or at least un-freeze.

            Sandwich bags (good ones with good zip-locks)

            Cheese cloth or coffee filter

            Funnel or aluminum foil (to make a funnel)

            Cups, or flask, 15ml centrifuge tubes

Why’s:

            Strawberries?   8 times the amount of DNA of normal cells

            Why frozen?     Ice disrupts cells.  Can use fresh strawberries, too.  Cheap!

            Detergent?        To disrupt cell membranes to liberate the DNA

            Salt?                 To shield the negative charges on DNA to allow precipitation

            Alcohol?           To cause DNA to precipitate