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Growth and Structure of Cities

Gary W. McDonogh, Director (on leave, semester II)

Assistant Professors:
Juan Manuel Arbona
Carola Hein

Senior Lecturers:
Jeffrey A. Cohen
Daniela Holt Voith

Visiting Studio Critic:
Sam Olshin

Affiliated Faculty:
David J. Cast
Linda Gerstein, at Haverford College
Laurie Hart, at Haverford College
Madhavi Kale
Steve McGovern, at Haverford College
Harriet B. Newburger
Kalala Ngalamulume
Marc Howard Ross
Robert E. Washington
James C. Wright

The interdisciplinary Cities major challenges the student to understand the dynamic relationship of urban spatial organization and the built environment to politics, economics, cultures and societies. Core introductory classes present analytic approaches that explore the changing forms of the city over time and analyze the variety of ways through which men and women have recreated urban life through time and across cultures. With these foundations, students pursue their interests through classes in planning, architecture, urban social and economic relations, urban history and the environmental conditions of urban life. Advanced seminars bring together these discussions by focusing on specific cities and topics.

Major Requirements

A minimum of 15 courses (11 courses in Cities and four allied courses) are required to complete the major. Four introductory courses (185, 190, 229, and 253 or 254) balance formal and sociocultural approaches to urban form and the built environment, and introduce crosscultural and historical comparison of urban development. These courses should be completed as early as possible in the first and second years; at least two of them must be taken by the end of the first semester of the sophomore year.

In addition to these introductory courses, each student selects six elective courses within the Cities program, including cross-listed courses. At least two must be at the 300 level. In the senior year, a third advanced course is required. Most students join together in a research seminar, 398 or 399. Occasionally, however, after consultation with the major advisers, the student may elect another 300-level course or a program for independent research.

Finally, each student must select four courses that identify additional expertise to complement her work in the major. These may include special skills in design, language or regional interests. Any minor or second major also fulfills this requirement.

Both the Cities program electives and the four or more related courses outside the program must be chosen in close consultation with the major advisers in order to create a strongly coherent sequence and focus. Note that those Cities courses that are cross-listed with other departments or originate in them can be counted only once in the course selection, although they may be either allied or elective courses.

Students should also note that many courses in the program are given on an alternate-year basis. Many carry prerequisites in art history, economics, history, sociology and the natural sciences. Hence, careful planning and frequent consultations with the major advisers are particularly important. Special arrangements are made for double majors.

Given the interdisciplinary emphasis and flexibility of the program, it is rare that the programs of any two Cities majors will be the same. Recurrent emphases, however, reflect the strengths of the major and incorporate the creative trajectories of student interests. These include:

Architecture and Architectural History. Students interested in architectural and urban design should pursue the studio courses (226, 228) in addition to regular introductory courses. They should also select appropriate electives in architectural history and planning to provide a broad exposure to architecture over time as well as across cultural traditions. Affiliated courses in physics and calculus meet requirements of graduate programs in architecture; theses may also be planned to incorporate design projects. Those students focusing more on the history of architecture should consider related offerings in the Departments of History of Art and Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology, and should carefully discuss selections with regard to study abroad in the junior year. Those preparing for graduate work should also make sure that they develop the requisite language skills. These students should consult as early as possible with Carola Hein, Daniela Voith or Jeffrey Cohen, especially if they wish to pursue graduate study outside of the United States.

Planning and Policy. Students interested in planning and policy may wish to consider the 3-2 Program in City and Regional Planning offered with the University of Pennsylvania (see page 19). In any case, their study plan should reflect a strong background in economics as well as relevant courses on social divisions, politics and policy-making, and ethics. As in other areas of interest, it is important that students also learn to balance their own experiences and commitments with a wider comparative framework of policy and planning options and implementation. This may include study abroad in the junior year as well as internships. Students working in policy and planning areas may consult with Juan Arbona or Gary McDonogh.

Other Programs. Additional trajectories have been created by students who coordinate their interests in Cities with law, mass media, medicine, public health or the fine arts, including photography, drawing and other fields. The Cities program recognizes that new issues and concerns are emerging in many areas. These must be met with solid foundations in the data of urban space and experience, cogent choices of methodology, and clear analytical writing and visual analysis. In all these cases, early and frequent consultation with major advisers and discussion with other students in the major are an important part of the Cities program.

Minor Requirements

Requirements for the minor in the Cities program are at least two out of the four required courses and four Cities electives, of which two must be at the 300 level. Senior Seminar is not mandatory in fulfilling the Cities minor.

Concentration in Environmental Studies

Students and faculty have forged strong ties with the Environmental Studies Concentration, and Cities is now moving to coordinate fully with that program. Students interested in environmental policy, action or design should take Geology 103 as a laboratory science and choose relevant electives such as Economics 234 or Political Science 222. They should also pursue appropriate science courses as affiliated choices and consider their options with regard to study abroad in the junior year. Consultation with Gary McDonogh and the director of the Environmental Studies Concentration is advised early in the planning of courses.

3-2 Program in City and Regional Planning

Occasionally students have entered the 3-2 Program in City and Regional Planning, offered in conjunction with the University of Pennsylvania. Students interested in this program should meet with the major advisers early in their sophomore year.

Volunteerism and Internships

In addition to regular coursework, the Cities program promotes student volunteer activities and student internships in architectural firms, offices of urban affairs and regional planning commissions. Students wishing to take advantage of these opportunities should consult with the advisers and the Praxis Office before the beginning of the semester.

Study Abroad and Off Campus

Programs for study abroad or off campus are also encouraged, within the limits of the Bryn Mawr and Haverford rules and practices. In general, a one-semester program is preferred, but exceptions are made. The Cities program regularly works with off-campus and study-abroad programs that are strong in architectural history, planning and design as well as those that allow students to pursue social and cultural interests. Students interested in spending all or part of their junior year away must consult with the major advisers and appropriate deans early in their sophomore year.

CITY B103. Introduction to Earth Systems and the Environment

(Barber, Division IIL; cross-listed as Geology 103)

CITY B136. Working with Economic Data

(Ross, Division I or Quantitative Skills; cross-listed as Economics 136) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B180. Introduction to Urban Planning

Lecture and technical class that considers broad issues of global planning as well as the skills and strategies necessary to the field. This may also be linked to the study of specific issues of planning such as waterfront development or sustainability. (staff, Division I) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B185. Urban Culture and Society

The techniques of the social sciences as tools for studying historical and contemporary cities. Topics include political-economic organization, conflict and social differentiation (class, ethnicity and gender), and cultural production and representation. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are explored. Philadelphia features prominently in discussion, reading and exploration. (Arbona, McDonogh, Division I; cross-listed as Anthropology 185)

CITY B190. The Form of the City: Urban Form from Antiquity to the Present

The city as a three-dimensional artifact. A variety of factors — geography, economic and population structure, politics, planning and aesthetics — are considered as determinants of urban form. (Hein, Division I or III; cross-listed as Anthropology 190 and History of Art 190)

CITY B203. Ancient Greek Cities and Sanctuaries

(Wright, Division III; cross-listed as Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology 203.)

CITY B207. Topics in Urban Studies

This course involves systematic intermediate-level study of urban issues and topics aimed at polishing skills in data collection, analysis and writing. Such study may focus on particular cities, sets of institutions across cities or global issues such as development, immigration or mass media. In 2004-05, this class will focus on Philadelphia architecture. (staff, Division I or III)

CITY B212. Medieval Architecture

(Kinney, Division III; cross-listed as History of Art 212)

CITY B213. Taming the Modern Corporation

(Ross, Division I; cross-listed as Economics 213)

CITY B214. Public Finance

(Newburger, Division I; cross-listed as Economics 214)

CITY B217. Research Design and Public Policy

This class engages quantitative, qualitative and spatial techniques in the investigation and analysis of urban issues. While the emphasis is on designing research strategies in the context of public policy, students interested in other areas should also consider this course. This course is designed to help students prepare for their senior thesis. Form and topic will vary. Enrollment may be limited. (Arbona, Division I or III)

CITY B218. Globalization and the City

This course introduces students to contemporary issues related to the urban built environment in Africa, Asia and Latin America (collectively referred to as the Third World or developing countries) and the implications of recent political and economic changes. (Arbona, Division I)

CITY B221. U.S. Economic History

(Redenius, Division I; cross-listed as Economics 221) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B222. Introduction to Environmental Issues: Movements, Controversies and Policy-Making in Comparative Perspective

(Hager, Division I; cross-listed as Political Science 222)

CITY B226. Introduction to Architectural and Urban Design

An introduction to the principles of architectural and urban design. Prerequisites: some history of art or history of architecture and permission of instructor. (Olshin, Voith, Division III)

CITY B227. Topics in the History of Planning: The European Metropolis

An introduction to planning that focuses, depending on year and professor, on a general overview of the field or on specific cities or contexts. (Hein, Division III; cross-listed as German and German Studies 227 and History of Art 227)

CITY B228. Problems in Architectural and Urban Design

A continuation of Cities 226 at a more advanced level. Prerequisites: Cities 226 or other comparable design work and permission of instructor. (Olshin, Voith, Division III)

CITY B229. Comparative Urbanism

An examination of approaches to urban development that focuses on intensive study and systematic comparison of individual cities through an original research paper. Themes and cities vary from year to year, although a variety of cultural areas are examined in each offering. In 2004, for example, the class examined growth beyond cities — suburbs, "grand ensembles," new towns, gated communities, shantytowns and sprawl. Case materials were taken from Buenos Aires, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Paris and Philadelphia (Levittown). (McDonogh, Division I; cross-listed as Anthropology 229 and East Asian Studies 229) Not offered in 2004-05; City 218 or 227 may substitute for requirement.

CITY B230. Topics in German Cultural Studies: Kafka's Prague

(Kenosian, Pavsek, Division I or III; cross-listed as German and German Studies 223)

CITY B232. Latin American Urban Development

A theoretical and empirical analysis in a historical setting of the factors that have shaped the urban development of Latin America, with emphasis on the relationship between political and social change and economic growth. (Arbona, Division I) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B234. Environmental Economics

(Ross, Division I; cross-listed as Economics 234) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B236. The New African Diaspora: African and Caribbean Immigrants in the U.S.

(Osirim, Division I; cross-listed as Sociology 239)

CITY B237. Urbanization in Africa

(Ngalamulume, Division I or III; cross-listed as History 237)

CITY B246. Women's Narratives on Modern Migrancy, Exile and Diaspora

(Seyhan, Division III; cross-listed as Anthropology 246, Comparative Litera-ture 245 and German and German Studies 245) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B250. Growth and Spatial Organization of American Cities

Overview of the changes, problems and possibilities of American cities. Various analytical models and theoretical approaches are covered. Topics may include American urban history, comparisons among cities, population and housing, neighborhoods and divisions, and urban design and the built environment. (Cohen, Division I) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B253. Survey of Western Architecture

The major traditions in Western architecture are illustrated through detailed analysis of selected examples from classical antiquity to the present. The evolution of architectural design and building technology, and the larger intellectual, aesthetic and social context in which this evolution occurred, are considered. (Cast, Hein, Division III; cross-listed as History of Art 253) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B254. History of Modern Architecture

A survey of the development of modern architecture since the 18th century, with principal emphasis on the period since 1890. (Hein, Division III; cross-listed as History of Art 254)

CITY B255. Survey of American Architecture

An examination of forms, figures, contexts and imaginations in the construction of the American built environment from colonial times to the present. Materials in and from Philadelphia figure as major resources. (Cohen, Division III; cross-listed as History of Art 255) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B257. Unreal Cities: Bombay, London and New York

(Kale, Division I or III; cross-listed as History 257) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B261. Postmodernism and Visual Culture

(Saltzman, Division III; cross-listed as History of Art 261) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B266. Schools in American Cities

(Cohen, Division I; cross-listed as Education 266)

CITY B267. Philadelphia, 1763 to Present

(Shore, Division I or III; cross-listed as History 267) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B270. Japanese Architecture and Planning

The built environment in Japan does not resemble its American or European counterparts, leading visitors to characterize it as visually chaotic even as recent observers praise its lively traditional neighborhoods. This course will explore characteristics of Japanese cities, their history and presence, and examine the particular cultural, political, economic and social contexts of urban form in Japan. (Hein, Division III; cross-listed as East Asian Studies 270) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B302. Greek Architecture

(Webb, Division III; cross-listed as Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology 302) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B305. Ancient Athens: Monuments and Art

(Miller-Collett; cross-listed as Classical and Near Eastern Arcaheology 305) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B306. Advanced Fieldwork Techniques: Places in Time

A seminar and workshop for research into the history of place, with student projects presented in digital form on the Web. Architectural and urban history, research methods and resources for probing the history of place, the use of tools for creating Web pages and digitizing images, and the design for informational experiences are examined. (Cohen, Division I or III)

CITY B313. Advanced Architecture and Urban Design

This course offers advanced studio tutelage in architecture and urban design. Students may pursue independent projects that will last the entire term while also participating in discussions with other designers and classes. The class will be offered on a special-need basis and requires prior completion of a year of design studio. (Olshin, Voith) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B314. Research Seminar: Topics in Social Policy

(Newburger, Division I; cross-listed as Economics 314)

CITY B316. Trade and Transport in the Ancient World

(staff, Division III; cross-listed as Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology 316) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B319. Advanced Topics in German Cultural Studies: Berlin in the 1920s.

(Meyer, Division I; cross-listed as German and German Studies 321)

CITY B324. Roman Architecture

(Scott, Division III; cross-listed as Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology 324, Greek, Latin and Classical Studies 324, and History of Art 324) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B325. Topics in Social History: Comparative History of Advertising in the U.S. and Europe Between 1850 and 1920

(Shore, Division I or III; cross-listed as History 325)

CITY B330. Comparative Economic Sociology: Societies of the North and South

(Osirim; cross-listed as Sociology 330)

CITY B331. Palladio and Palladianism

(Cast; cross-listed as History of Art 331) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B334. Seminar on the Economics of Poverty and Discrimination

(Newburger, Division I; cross-listed as Economics 324)

CITY B335. Elite and Popular Culture

An examination of urban culture as a ground for conflict, domination and resistance through both theoretical and applied analysis of production, texts, readings and social action within a political/economic framework. In 2004, for example, this course dealt with the city and mass media, including imagery, ownership, audience and reinterpretation as well as critical cultural policy. Materials were drawn from U.S. and global media, from comics to the Internet, with special emphasis on film and television. (McDonogh, Division I; cross-listed as Anthropology 335) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B339. The Policy-Making Process

(Golden; cross-listed as Political Science 339) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B348. Culture and Ethnic Conflict

(Ross; cross-listed as Political Science 348)

CITY B355. Topics in the History of London

(Cast, Division I or III; cross-listed as History 355 and History of Art 355) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B360. Topics in Urban Culture and Society

Advanced theoretical perspectives blend with contemporary and historical cases to explore specific problems in social scientific analysis of the city, such as space and time, race and class, elite and popular culture, or the construction of social and cultural distance in suburbs and downtowns. Topic for fall 2004: War, Catastrophe and the City (Hein; cross-listed as Anthropology 359, German and German Studies 321 and History of Art 359)

CITY B365. Techniques of the City: Vice, Virtue and Citizenship

Over time, cities have been seen both as the epitomes of human civilization and, whether in whole or in part, as dystopic sites of decay and despair. In the end, the construction/identification of good and evil in the city, whether defined by space, institution or people, is a fundamental component of metropolitan knowledge and urban reform. Drawing on case studies and theoretical materials, this seminar asks how the good and bad citizen come to be defined, who defines such roles, and the impact of questions of gender, sexuality, race, immigration and community on such mappings. It also explores how images, ideologies and fears imbue mass media as much as social-science and reform projects, and how we can move critically beyond our own models to rethink global urbanism. Enrollment limited to 15 by permission of the instructor. Preference given to majors. (McDonogh, Division I) Not offered in 2004-05.

CITY B377. Housing and Dwelling: Perspectives on Modern Domestic Architecture

(Lane, Division III; cross-listed as History of Art 377)

CITY B378. Formative Landscapes: The Architecture and Planning of American Collegiate Campuses

An exploration of the architecture, planning, and visual rhetoric of American collegiate campuses from their early history to the present. Historical consideration of design trends and projected imageries will be complemented by student exercises involving documentary research on design genesis and contexts, discussion of critical reception, evidence of contemporary performance and perception, and digital presentation. (Cohen, Division III)

CITY B398, CITY B399. Senior Seminar An intensive research seminar.

(Cohen, McDonogh)

CITY B403. Independent Study

CITY B450. Urban Internships (Praxis III) Individual opportunities to engage in praxis in the greater Philadelphia area; internships must be arranged prior to registration for the semester in which the internship is taken. Enrollment is limited to five students a semester. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. (staff)

Haverford and Swarthmore courses may fulfill electives in the Cities program. They may be identified in course listings and discussed with the major advisers. Courses at the University of Pennsylvania may sometimes be substituted for certain electives in the Cities program; these should be examined in conjunction with the major advisers.

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