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East Asian Studies

Paul Jakov Smith, Co-director, at Haverford College

Associate Provost:
Suzanne Spain, Co-director

Associate Professors:
Haili Kong, at Swarthmore College
Shizhe Huang, Chinese Language Program Director, at Haverford College (on leave, 2004-05)

Assistant Professors:
Hank Glassman, at Haverford College (on leave, 2004-05)
Youngmin Kim
Yiman Wang, Mellon Post Doctoral Fellow and Visiting Assistant Professor of Comparative Literature and East Asian Studies, at Haverford College

Senior Lecturer:
Yoko Koike, Japanese Language Program Director, at Haverford College

Tz’u Chiang
Weijie Song

Visiting Lecturer:
Micah Auerback

Yukino Tanaka, at Haverford College

Drill Instructor:
Changchun Zhang

Affiliated Faculty:
Including, but not limited to, faculty members from the Bryn Mawr, Haverford and/or Swarthmore College Departments of Anthropology, Economics, Growth and Structure of Cities, History, History of Art, Modern Languages, Music, Philosophy, Psychology and Religion.

The Bi-College Program of East Asian Studies links rigorous language training to the study of East Asian, and particularly Chinese and Japanese, culture and society. In addition to our intensive programs in Chinese and Japanese languages, faculty offer courses in East Asian philosophy, linguistics, literature, religion, and social and intellectual history.

The intellectual orientation of the East Asian Studies Program is primarily historical and text-based; that is, we focus on East Asia’s rich cultural traditions as a way to understand its present, through the study of primary sources (in translation and in the vernacular) and scholarly books and articles. All students wishing to specialize in this humanistic approach to the study of China, Japan and (with special approval) Korea are encouraged to consider the East Asian Studies major. But we also work closely with affiliated faculty in the Bi-Co and Tri-Co community who approach East Asia from the perspectives of social science disciplines and humanities disciplines such as History, Music, Religion and Philosophy. Students who wish to combine the study of East Asia and its languages with a major in another discipline are invited to consider the East Asian Studies minor, described more fully below.

Major Requirements

Requirements for the major are:
1. Completion of the third-year level of (Mandarin) Chinese or Japanese. Students who entered college with native fluency in one East Asian language (including Korean) must complete this requirement with another East Asian language.
2. One non-language introduction to East Asian culture from the array of 100-level courses offered by the Bi-College East Asian Studies Program.
3. East Asian Studies 200b (Sophomore Seminar: Methods and Approaches to East Asian Studies), which highlights the emergence of East Asia as a coherent cultural region and introduces students to basic bibliographic skills and research approaches. Required of East Asian Studies majors and minors; open to History majors and others with permission of the instructors. This course should be taken in the second semester of the sophomore year.
4. One 200- or 300-level course on China, Japan or Korea in the discipline of Anthropology, Economics, Growth and Structure of Cities, Political Science or Sociology. The East Asian Studies Program recommends fulfilling this requirement from courses offered by Bi- or Tri-Co faculty.
5. Five additional courses in East Asian cultures, at least one of which must be at the 300 level.
6. One 400-level Research Seminar from among the array of Research Seminars listed, culminating in the writing of a major research essay. Research Seminars are offered on a rotating basis, so students should consult with the East Asian Studies chair to determine which seminars will be available to them.

Placement Tests

Placement tests for first-time students at all levels are conducted in the first week of the fall semester. To qualify for third-year courses (in both Chinese and Japanese), students need to have a 3.0 average in second-year language study or take a placement test in the beginning of the third-year course. In the event that students do not score 3.0 or above at the end of the second-year language study, they must consult with the director of the respective language program and work out a summer study plan that may include, but is not limited to, taking summer courses or studying on their own under supervision.


Honors in East Asian Studies will be awarded by the program faculty on the basis of superior performance in two areas: coursework in major-related courses (including language classes) and the senior thesis. A 3.5 average in major-related coursework is considered the minimum necessary for consideration for honors.

Minor Requirements

The East Asian Studies Program offers a flexible six-course minor for students with varying interests in East Asian cultures and languages. All candidates for minor credit must take East Asian Studies 200b (Sophomore Seminar). In addition, they may take five additional courses in East Asian cultures and society, or any combination of culture courses and intermediate and advanced language courses in Chinese or Japanese. The most typical configurations will be East Asian Studies 200b plus: five additional culture courses and no language; three additional culture courses and two language courses at the intermediate or advanced level; or one additional culture course and four language courses at the intermediate and advanced levels.

Study Abroad

The East Asian Studies Program strongly recommends study abroad to maximize language proficiency and cultural familiarity. Because study abroad provides an unparalleled opportunity to study a culture from the inside, students spending a semester or year in China, Japan or Korea will be required to prepare an essay of 10 pages on significant issues confronting their host country, based on information from local newspapers or magazines, television, or personal interviews. No Program credit will be granted for study abroad without satisfactory completion of this assignment, whose details should be worked out with the student’s advisor.

Formal approval is required by the study abroad adviser prior to the student’s travel. Without this approval, credit for courses taken abroad may not be accepted by the East Asian Studies Program.

If studying abroad is not practical, students may consider attending certain intensive summer schools approved by the East Asian Studies Program. These plans must be worked out in concert with the program’s study abroad adviser and the student’s dean.

Half-Credit Language Intensification for Non-Language Courses in East Asian Studies

In the case of specially designated East Asian culture courses, students with the requisite language skills may also enroll in a half-credit course enhancement which offers guided reading of selected course texts in the original Chinese, Japanese or Korean. This option is open to students who have completed the second-year level in their target language, and can only be exercised as an add-on to the specially designated full-credit course. It will be offered selectively and at the discretion of the full-credit course instructor. Students can employ the language intensification for no more than one course per semester, although they may use it again in subsequent semesters. But accumulated credits cannot be used in lieu of the required array of East Asian Studies courses.

120b. Chinese Perspectives on the Individual and Society

A survey of philosophical, literary, legal and autobiographical sources on Chinese notions of the individual and group responsibility in the traditional and modern eras, with special emphasis on how ideal and actual relationships between the individual and society vary across gender and class and over time. (Smith, Division III)

EAST B131. Chinese Civilization

A broad chronological survey of Chinese culture and society from the Bronze Age to the present, with special reference to such topics as belief, family, language, the arts and sociopolitical organization. Readings include primary sources in English translation and secondary studies. (Kim, Division I or III)

132b. Japanese Civilization

A broad chronological survey of Japanese culture and society from the earliest times to the present, with special reference to such topics as belief, family, language, the arts and sociopolitical organization. Readings include primary sources in English translation and secondary studies. (Glassman, Division I or III) Not offered in 2004-05.

200b. Sophomore Seminar: Methods and Approaches in East Asian Studies

This course introduces current and prospective majors to the scope and methods of East Asian Studies. It employs readings on East Asian history and culture as a platform for exercises in critical analysis, bibliography, cartography and the formulation of research topics and approaches. It culminates in a substantial research essay. A prerequisite for East Asian Studies majors, the course should be taken in the second semester of the sophomore year; in some circumstances it may be taken in the second semester of the junior year. The course is also open to minors and concentrators in East Asian Studies as an elective. (Smith, Division III)

201. Introduction to Buddhism

Focusing on the East Asian Buddhist tradition, the course examines Buddhist philosophy, doctrine and practice as textual traditions and as lived religion. (Glassman, Division III) Not offered in 2004-05.

EAST B205. Enlightenment and Decadence in Modern Chinese Literature and Film

An exploration of heterogeneous voices of Modern Chinese Literature (from Late Qing period to the present) and Chinese film in terms of the twin poles of enlightenment and decadence. Discussions of repressed modernities, edifying depravity, martial arts spectacles, the birth and death of new youth, sentimental and unsentimental educations, desolated aesthetics, teaching in bedroom/school/hospital, the (re)education of the revolutionary youth, the fantastic and the grotesque imaginations, cannibalism and carnivalism, fin-de-si╦cle narratives, gender, violence and subculture fantasy. (Song, Division III)

EAST B210. Topics in Chinese Culture: Introduction to Chinese Philosophy

This course is an introduction to Chinese thought, using translated sources. Rather than surveying the long history of Chinese thought, this course focuses on the major philosophical schools that originated in China: Confucianism, Daosim, Mohism, Legalism and Neo-Confucianism. The doctrines associated with these schools, along with Buddhism, affected cultural developments in art, philosophy, politics, religion and science throughout Chinese history. Readings include the writings of some of the most influential thinkers in Chinese history: Confucius, Mozi, Mencius, Laozi, Zhuangzi, Xunzi, Han Feizi, Zhu Zi and Wang Yangming. Thematically speaking, topics debated by these writers include self-cultivation, ritual, theories of human nature, the relation between personal and social good, and the relationship between humans and the cosmos. (Kim, Division III) Not offered in 2004-05.

216. Invaded Ideology and Translated Modernity: Modern Chinese and Japanese Literatures

This course will study selected Chinese and Japanese literary texts from the late-19th century to 1937 that illustrate the cultural, ideological, political and social dilemmas underlying the modernization of the two neighboring nations. The focus of the course is on shared concerns, such as the clash between tradition and modernity at both the national and personal levels, and on the transformative cultural interchanges between China and Japan during this era of modernization. (Kong, Division III) Not offered in 2004-05.

EAST B226. Introduction to Confucianism

An introduction to Confucianism, arguably the most influential intellectual and cultural tradition in East Asia. In the first half, this course will train students to read the condensed style of the Confucian canons — the Analects, the Book of Mencius, the Great Learning and the Doctrine of the Mean — by examining different commentators' explanations of select passages. The course aims to highlight not only the diversity of opinions within the Confucian tradition, but also the richness of the canons as literary and historical texts. In the second half, we will analyze Confucianism in light of contemporary discussions of issues such as human rights, virtue ethics, women's history, economic development and political authority. This course has no prerequisites and assumes no background in East Asian culture. (Kim, Division III; cross-listed as Philosophy 226)

228. The Logos and the Tao

This course challenges the postmodern construction of "China" as the (feminine) poetic "Other" to the (masculine) metaphysical "West" by analyzing postmodern concepts of word, image and writing in relation to Chinese poetry, painting and calligraphy. (Wright, Division III) Not offered in 2004-05.

228a. Musical Voices of Asia

(Freedman, Division III; cross-listed as Music 228a) Not offered in 2004-05.

EAST B229. Comparative Urbanism

(McDonogh, Division I; cross-listed as Anthropology 229 and Growth and Structure of Cities 229) Not offered in 2004-05.

EAST B234. Introduction to Korean Culture

This course examines the dynamics of Korean cultural and intellectual history from the perspective of cultural identity. How did Korea negotiate its position in the traditional Asian cultural sphere? What is the significance of the so-called "Confucianization" of Choson Korea? What events and conditions shaped Korea in the 20th century? What was the impact of Japanese colonialism on Korea's modern transformation? This course explores these questions through a variety of literary works as well as historical writing, philosophical debates and the arts. No knowledge of Korean language or history is required. (Kim, Division III; cross-listed as History 252)

240a. Economic Development and Transformation: China vs. India

A survey of the economic development and recent transitional experience in China and India, giant neighboring countries, accounting for roughly one third of total world population. The course will examine the economic structure and policies in the two countries, with a focus on comparing China and India's recent economic successes and failures, their development policies and strategies, institutional changes, and factors affecting the transformation process in the two countries. (Jilani, Division I; cross-listed as Economics 240a, Haverford College)

242a. Chinese Language in Culture and Society

An examination of the use and function of the Chinese language in culture and society, both within mainland China and in the Chinese diaspora. Topics include: language standardization, language planning, language and dialects, language and ethnicity, language and politics, and linguistic construction of self and community. (Huang, Division I) Not offered in 2004-05.

242a. Buddhist Philosophy

An introduction to classical Indian Buddhist thought in a global and comparative context. The course begins with a meditative reading of the classical text —The Dhamapada — and proceeds to an in depth critical exploration of the teachings of Nagarjuna, the great dialectician who founded the Madhyamika School. (Gangadean, Division III; taught as Philosophy 242a, Haverford College)

244. Anthropology of China

Social institutions, cultural idioms, and forms of representation in and of Chinese society over the past 150 years. Through investigations of ethnographic monographs, missionary records, memoirs and realist fiction, we develop skills in social analysis and cultural critique, and enrich our understanding of contemporary Chinese society. (Gillette, Division I) Not offered in 2004-05.

250b. Religion in Modern Japan

A survey of developments in modern Japanese religion from the middle of the 19th century to the present. We will use a selection of translated primary texts and secondary scholarship to investigate a range of traditions including: the transformation of Buddhism in Meiji Japan; the rise of state Shinto; the efforts at the indigenization of Christianity; and the development of New Religions, from the Teaching of the Heavenly Principle to Aum Shinrikyo. Particular emphasis will be placed on the literary representations of religion in this period. We will keep the following issues in mind: What does it mean to speak of "modern religion"? As Japan entered "modernity," has it become secularized? Does the Japanese experience offer new perspectives on religion in the modern world? (Auerback, Division III)

256. Zen Thought, Zen Culture, Zen History

Introduction to the intellectual and cultural history of the style of Buddhism known as Zen in Japanese. The development and expression of this religious movement in China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam will be examined. (Glassman, Division III) Not offered in 2004-05.

260a. Mid-Imperial China

Surveys the fundamental transformation of Chinese society between the ninth and 16th centuries, with particular stress on the rise of a literocentric elite; Neo-Confucianism's impact on social and gender relations; fraught relations between China and the steppe; and China's role in the premodern global economy. (Smith, Division I or III)

262. Chinese Social History: Gods, Ghosts and Ancestors in Traditional Chinese Society

A survey of important new scholarship on the centrality of religion (including Daoism, Buddhism and popular religion) in traditional Chinese society, culminating in a selection from the 16th-century novel Journey to the West (aka Monkey). Prerequisite: sophomore status or higher. (Smith, Division III) Not offered in 2004-05.

EAST B270. Japanese Architecture and Planning

(Hein, Division III; cross-listed as Growth and Structure of Cities 270) Not offered in 2004-05.

275b. Romancing/Passing

An exploration of the political and cultural implications of different kinds of border-crossing (or "passing") in films from or about East Asia. In tracking passages across boundaries of gender, ethnicity, race and culture, we will focus especially on the production and meaning of Romance, which may take a variety of forms and bear a number of meanings: fantasmic or realistic representation; homosexual or heterosexual desire; utopic or dystopic vision. This course will be conducted in concert with the Romancing/Passing film series to be held in April 2005. (Wang, Division III)

282. Structure of Chinese

This course is designed to acquaint students with both the syntactic and semantic structures of Mandarin Chinese and the theoretical implications they pose to the study of natural language. Students will have an opportunity to further their understanding of linguistic theories and to develop skills in systematically analyzing a non-Indo-European language. Prerequisite: General Programs 262 or consent of the instructor. (Huang, Division I) Not offered in 2004-05.

310. Religion and Gender in Premodern Japanese Literature

Examination of the intersection of religion and gender in Japanese literature from the eighth through the 16th centuries; from Japanese creation myths to Lady Murasaki's courtly Tale of Genji and the homoerotic Buddhist literature of the late medieval period. The course assumes no prior academic experience in gender studies, literature, religion or Japanese culture. All sources are in English translation. (Glassman, Division III; cross-listed as Religion 310) Not offered in 2004-05.

315b. Cultural Interchange in 19th- to 20th-Century East Asia

English-language histories of East Asian countries since the 19th century have long focused on the "Western impact" of imperialism and its effects in Asia. As a result, the interactions among different East Asian cultural spheres in this period have received comparatively little attention. This course aims to tell a different story of East Asia, focusing on the various relationships among China, Japan and Korea. From politics to karaoke, from colonialism to the dinner table, we will be considering the range of ways in which mutual interactions have changed the face of Asian countries. All course readings will be in English and videos will be subtitled. There are no prerequisites, though knowledge of the modern history of any Asian country would be helpful. (Auerback)

EAST B325. Topics in Chinese History and Culture: Modern Chinese Intellectual History

This course traces the intellectual history of China from the Opium War (1840) to the 1990s. The issues to be examined include China's so-called response to the West, iconoclastic attacks on tradition, the reinvention of Chinese traditions, the impact of the Enlightenment mentality and the rise of Maoism. Special attention will be paid to important thinkers and intellectual debates that have had profound consequences for the modernization of Chinese history. As we examine them, we will see how people in China since the mid-19th century have come to face the dilemmas of modernity that challenge us all. Some knowledge of Chinese history is preferred but not required. (Kim, Division III; cross-listed as History 326)

330a. Cinema Nostalgia

An examination of how fragmented, past images are recollected and refashioned in the post-80s Chinese language feature films and documentaries produced in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, with what implications. What are the historical conjunctures from which such remembering cinema arises; how does this type of cinema help to deepen our understanding of the relationship between image, nostalgia and cinema; what kind of politics of nostalgia can we evolve on the basis of this cinema? (Wang)

EAST B335. East Asian Development

This course examines the development of the first and second tier newly industrialized economies (NIEs) of East Asia and evaluates explanations for their performances. Prerequisites: Economics 300 or 302 or permission of instructor. (Rock, Division I; cross-listed as Economics 335)

342b. Topics in Asian Philosophy: Buddhism in a Global Context

This advanced seminar focuses on the development of Zen (Japanese) Buddhism culminating in the work of Nishida and his influential Kyoto School of Zen Philosophy. The background in the Indian origins of Madhyamika dialectic introduced by Nagarjuna is traced through the Zen Master Dogen and into the flourishing of the modern Kyoto School founded by Nishida. The seminar focuses on texts by Dogen and on selected writings in the Kyoto School: Nishida, Nishitani and Abe. The seminar involves intensive discussion of the issues in a global context of philosophy. Nishida's thought is developed in dialogue with thinkers such as Aristotle, Descartes, Kant, Hegel, Husserl, Sartre, Heidegger, Nagarjuna and others. (Gangadean)

347a. Topics in East Asian History Topic for 2004: Modern Chinese Political Culture.

The emergence of Chinese political culture from ca. 1900 to the present. A survey of recent scholarship on the emergence of China's political culture from ca. 1900 to the present, with a focus on such topics as civil society, the prospects for democratization and the impact of economic globalization on political change. (Smith)

349. Topics in Comparative History: Warriors and Outlaws in China and Japan

An examination of two great epic tales — Tale of the Heike and Outlaws of the Marsh — as sources for the comparative history of Japanese and Chinese culture and society. Some knowledge of Chinese or Japanese history is helpful but not required. (Smith, Division III) Not offered in 2004-05.

EAST B354. Identity, Ritual and Culture in Vietnam

This course focuses on the ways recent economic and political changes in Vietnam influence and shape everyday lives, meanings and practices. It explores construction of identity in Vietnam. Prerequisite: at least one ethnographic anthropology course at the 200 or 300 level, or permission of the instructor. (Pashigian, Division I; cross-listed as Anthropology 354)

EAST B381. History of Japanese Art

(Easton, Division III; cross-listed as History of Art 381)

398a. Senior Seminar

The first semester of this two-semester sequence surveys the kinds of resources available for undergraduate research on East Asia, identifies the tasks involved in designing a research project and gets participants started on their senior thesis. Required of all majors; open to concentrators and others by permission. (Kim, Smith)

399b. Senior Conference

Required of majors, open to concentrators and others by permission. Second semester of the two-semester thesis seminar. (Kim, Smith)

EAST B403. Supervised Work

410. Research Seminar in East Asian Thought and Culture

Guided research on varying topics in East Asian Thought and Culture. The theme of the seminar will vary from year to year, but all students must choose a research topic and write a paper that falls under their year's rubric. Special emphasis will be placed on close reading of primary sources. (Y. Kim) Not offered in 2004-05.

411. Research Seminar in Chinese Literature Not offered in 2004-05.

412. Research Seminar in Chinese Language and Linguistics

Guided research on topics ranging from the social and cultural aspects of the Chinese language to theoretical issues in Chinese syntax and semantics. The individually designed research projects may differ by theme and scope, but all students are required to use primary language sources as part of their research portfolio and to have at least two relevant courses in their background. Open to upper-class East Asian Studies majors and Linguistics majors. Offered every three or four years. (S. Huang) Not offered in 2004-05.

413. Research Seminar in East Asian Buddhism

Guided research on topics to be determined by the students in consultation with the instructor. The theme of the seminar will vary from year to year, but all students must choose a research topic that falls under their year's rubric (for example, Pure Land Buddhism, Buddha Nature and Original Enlightenment, The Buddha Body). Open to upper-class majors in East Asian Studies and Religion, others by permission. An introductory course on Buddhism or equivalent knowledge is prerequisite. (H. Glassman) Not offered in 2004-05.

414. Research Seminar in East Asian History and Culture

Guided research on varying topics in premodern and modern East Asian history and culture. Special emphasis will be placed on designing a scholarly project based on such primary sources as literature (in translation or the vernacular), material and visual artifacts in area museums, and documentary sources in the Bi-Co and area libraries and archives. Open to upper-class students in East Asian Studies and History, and to others with permission of the instructor. (P. Smith) Not offered in 2004-05.

415. Research Seminar in the Material Culture of China

In this advanced research seminar, students will design and complete individual research projects centered on objects, architectural installations and other manifestations of Chinese material culture available in the Philadelphia area (other possibilities might include space, architecture and monuments in Chinatown). Students will explore a range of research methods for the study of objects and develop an understanding of how material culture can be used for the study of society and culture. (M. Gillette) Not offered in 2004-05.

East Asian Languages

The East Asian Studies program welcomes students who wish to combine their interests in East Asian languages with the study of an East Asian culture. These students are urged to consult the coordinator of East Asian Studies on either campus, who will advise them on creating individual plans of study in appropriate departments.

Chinese Language

Shizhe Huang, Chinese Language Program Director, at Haverford College (on leave, 2004-05)
Tz'u Chiang
Weijie Song
Changchun Zhang

The Chinese Language Program offers a full undergraduate curriculum of courses in Mandarin Chinese. Students who will combine language study with focused work on East Asian society and culture may wish to consider the major or minor in East Asian Studies. Information about study abroad programs can be found under the East Asian Studies heading in this catalog.

CNSE B001-B002. Elementary Chinese (Intensive)

An intensive introductory course in modern spoken and written Chinese. The development of oral-aural skills is integrated through grammar explanations and drill sessions designed to reinforce new material through active practice. Five hours a week of lecture and oral practice; also individual conversation. This is a year-long course; both semesters are required for credit. (Chiang)

CNSE B003-B004. Intermediate Chinese

Language skills in speaking, listening, reading and writing are further developed through carefully designed practices. Oral proficiency is enhanced by dramatization of situational topics, and written skills by regular composition writing. Both reading and writing are in Chinese characters only. Classes three hours, lab two hours a week. This is a year-long course; both semesters are required for credit. Prerequisite: Chinese 001, 002 or equivalent. (Song)

CNSE B005-B006. Chinese for Heritage Learners

This course is designed for those students who already speak Chinese but are unable to read or write in the character form. The focus is on reading and writing. After successfully completing this course, students will be able to take Chinese 101. Prerequisite: placement test. (Chiang) Not offered in 2004-05.

CNSE B101, B102. Advanced Chinese: Readings in the Modern Chinese Short Story and Theater

A focus on overall language skills through reading and discussion of modern short stories, as well as on students' facility in written and oral expression through readings in modern drama and screenplays. Readings include representative works from the May Fourth Period (1919-27) to the present. Audio- and videotapes of drama and films are used as study aids. Prerequisite: Intermediate (second-year) Chinese or permission of instructor. (Song, Division III)

CNSE B201, B202. Readings in the Humanities

Development of language ability in the areas of modern Chinese literature, history and/or philosophy. Speaking and reading skills are equally emphasized through a consideration of the intellectual, historical and social significance of representative works. Prerequisite: Chinese 101, 102 or permission of instructor. (Chiang, Division III)

Japanese Language

Yoko Koike, Director
Hank Glassman (on leave, 2004-05)
Yukino Tanaka

001-002. First-Year Japanese (Intensive)

Introduction to the four basic skills (reading, writing, speaking and listening) with special emphasis on the development of conversational fluency in sociocultural contexts. Lecture and oral practice seven hours, language lab at least two hours a week. This is a year-long course; both semesters are required for credit. (Koike)

003-004. Second-Year Japanese (Intensive)

A continuation of First-Year Japanese, focusing on the further development of oral proficiency, reading and writing skills. Lecture and oral practice seven hours, language lab at least two hours a week. This is a year-long course; both semesters are required for credit. Prerequisite: Japanese 001, 002 or equivalent. (Tanaka)

101, 102. Third-Year Japanese

A continuation of language study with further development of oral proficiency. Emphasis is on reading and discussing simple texts. Advanced study of grammar and kanji; introduction to composition writing. Class three hours and oral practice one hour a week, and work in the language lab. Prerequisite: Japanese 003, 004 or equivalent. (Tanaka)

201, 202. Fourth-Year Japanese

Advanced study of written and spoken Japanese using texts and audiovisual materials. Prerequisites: Japanese 101, 102 or equivalent and permission of instructor. (Koike)

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