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Growth and Structure of Cities

Students may complete a major or minor in growth and structure of cities. Within the major, students may complete a concentration in environmental studies. Students may enter the 3-2 Program in City and Regional Planning, offered in cooperation with the University of Pennsylvania.


Juan Manuel Arbona, Assistant Professor (on leave 2005-06)
Jeffrey A. Cohen, Senior Lecturer
Carola Hein, Associate Professor (on leave 2005-06)
Gary W. McDonogh, Professor and Director
Sam Olshin, Visiting Studio Critic
Daniela Sandler, Instructor
Daniela Holt Voith, Senior Lecturer

The interdisciplinary growth and structure of cities major challenges the student to understand the dynamic relationship of urban spatial organization and the built environment to politics, economics, cultures and societies. Core introductory classes present analytic approaches that explore the changing forms of the city over time and analyze the variety of ways through which men and women have recreated urban life through time and across cultures. With these foundations, students pursue their interests through classes in planning, architecture, urban social and economic relations, urban history and the environmental conditions of urban life. Advanced seminars bring together these discussions by focusing on specific cities and topics.

Major Requirements

A minimum of 15 courses (11 courses in Cities and four allied courses) are required to complete the major. Four introductory courses (185, 190, 229 and an architectural survey course — 253, 254 or 255) balance formal and sociocultural approaches to urban form and the built environment, and introduce crosscultural and historical comparison of urban development. These courses should be completed as early as possible in the first and second years; at least two of them must be taken by the end of the first semester of the sophomore year.

In addition to these introductory courses, each student selects six elective courses within the Cities Program, including cross-listed courses. At least two must be at the 300 level. In the senior year, a third advanced course is required. Most students join together in a research seminar, 398. Occasionally, however, after consultation with the major advisers, the student may elect another 300-level course or a program for independent research. This is often the case with double majors.

Finally, each student must select four courses that identify additional expertise to complement her work in the major. These may include special skills in design, language or regional interests. Any minor or second major also fulfills this requirement.

Both the Cities Program electives and the four or more related courses outside the program must be chosen in close consultation with the major advisers in order to create a strongly coherent sequence and focus. Note that those cities courses that are cross-listed with other departments or originate in them can be counted only once in the course selection, although they may be either allied or elective courses.

Students should also note that many courses in the program are given on an alternate-year basis. Many carry prerequisites in art history, economics, history, sociology and the natural sciences. Hence, careful planning and frequent consultations with the major advisers are particularly important. Special arrangements are made for double majors.

Given the interdisciplinary emphasis and flexibility of the program, it is rare that the programs of any two cities majors will be the same. Recurrent emphases, however, reflect the strengths of the major and incorporate the creative trajectories of student interests. These include:

Architecture and Architectural History. Students interested in architectural and urban design should pursue the studio courses (226, 228) in addition to regular introductory courses. They should also select appropriate electives in architectural history and planning to provide a broad exposure to architecture over time as well as across cultural traditions. Affiliated courses in physics and calculus meet requirements of graduate programs in architecture; theses may also be planned to incorporate design projects. Those students focusing more on the history of architecture should consider related offerings in the Departments of history of art and classical and Near Eastern archaeology, and should carefully discuss selections with regard to study abroad in the junior year. Those preparing for graduate work should also make sure that they develop the requisite language skills. These students should consult as early as possible with Carola Hein, Daniela Voith or Jeffrey Cohen, especially if they wish to pursue graduate study outside of the United States.

Planning and Policy. Students interested in planning and policy may wish to consider the 3-2 Program in City and Regional Planning offered with the University of Pennsylvania. Their study plan should reflect a strong background in economics as well as relevant courses on social divisions, politics and policy-making, and ethics. As in other areas of interest, it is important that students also learn to balance their own experiences and commitments with a wider comparative framework of policy and planning options and implementation. This may include study abroad in the junior year as well as internships. Students working in policy and planning areas may consult with Juan Arbona or Gary McDonogh.

Additional trajectories have been created by students who coordinate their interests in cities with law, mass media, medicine, public health or the fine arts, including photography, drawing and other fields. The Cities Program recognizes that new issues and concerns are emerging in many areas. These must be met with solid foundations in the data of urban space and experience, cogent choices of methodology and clear analytical writing and visual analysis. Early and frequent consultation with major advisers and discussion with other students in the major are an important part of the Cities Program.

Minor Requirements

Requirements for the minor in the Cities Program are at least two out of the four required courses and four cities electives, of which two must be at the 300 level. Senior Seminar is not mandatory in fulfilling the cities minor.

Concentration in Environmental Studies

The Cities Program participates with other departments in offering a concentration in environmental studies. Students interested in environmental policy, action or design should take Geology 103 as a laboratory science and choose relevant electives such as Economics 234 or Political Science 222. They should also pursue appropriate science courses as affiliated choices and consider their options with regard to study abroad in the junior year. Consultation with Gary McDonogh and the director of environmental studies is advised early in the planning of courses.

3-2 Program in City and Regional Planning

Occasionally students have entered the 3-2 Program in City and Regional Planning, offered in conjunction with the University of Pennsylvania. Students interested in this program should meet with the major advisers early in their sophomore year.

Volunteerism and Internships

The Cities Program promotes student volunteer activities and student internships in architectural firms, offices of urban affairs and regional planning commissions. Students wishing to take advantage of these opportunities should consult with the advisers and the Praxis Office before the beginning of the semester.

Study Abroad and Off Campus

Programs for study abroad or off campus are also encouraged, within the limits of the Bryn Mawr and Haverford rules and practices. In general, a one-semester program is preferred, but exceptions are made. The Cities Program regularly works with off-campus and study-abroad programs that are strong in architectural history, planning and design as well as those that allow students to pursue social and cultural interests. Students interested in spending all or part of their junior year away must consult with the major advisers and appropriate deans early in their sophomore year.

Haverford and Swarthmore courses may fulfill electives in the Cities Program. They may be identified in course listings and discussed with the major advisers. Courses at the University of Pennsylvania may sometimes be substituted for certain electives in the Cities Program; these should be examined in conjunction with the major advisers.

CITY B103 Earth System Science and the Environment

(Barber, Division IIL; cross-listed as GEOL B103)

CITY B180 Introduction to Urban Planning

Lecture and technical class that considers broad issues of global planning as well as the skills and strategies necessary to the field. This may also be linked to the study of specific issues of planning such as waterfront development or sustainability. (staff, Division I) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B185 Urban Culture and Society

The techniques of the social sciences as tools for studying historical and contemporary cities. Topics include political-economic organization, conflict and social differentiation (class, ethnicity and gender), and cultural production and representation. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are explored. Philadelphia features prominently in discussion, reading and exploration. (McDonogh, Division I; cross-listed as ANTH B185)

CITY B190 The Form of the City: Urban Form from Antiquity to the Present

The city as a three-dimensional artifact. A variety of factors - geography, economic and population structure, politics, planning and aesthetics - are considered as determinants of urban form. (Cohen, Sandler, Division I or III; cross-listed as ANTH B190 and HART B190)

CITY B203 Ancient Greek Cities and Sanctuaries

(Wright, Division III; cross-listed as ARCH B203.) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B205 Social Inequality

(Karen, Division I; cross-listed as SOCL B205)

CITY B206 Statistical Methods in Economics

(Redenius, Ross, Quantitative Skills; cross-listed as ECON B203)

CITY B207 Topics in Urban Studies: Philadelphia Architecture

This course involves systematic intermediate-level study of urban issues and topics aimed at polishing skills in data collection, analysis and writing. Such study may focus on particular cities, sets of institutions across cities or global issues such as development, immigration or mass media. In 2006, the class will focus on the urbanism and architecture of Philadelphia, from colonial origins to the present (Cohen, Division I or III)

CITY B209 Medical Anthropology

(Pashigian, Division I; cross-listed as ANTH B210) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B212 Medieval Architecture

(Kinney, Division III; cross-listed as HART B212) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B213 Taming the Modern Corporation

(Ross, Division I; cross-listed as ECON B213)

CITY B214 Public Finance

(Newburger, Division I; cross-listed as ECON B214) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B217 Research Design and Public Policy

This class engages quantitative, qualitative and spatial techniques in the investigation and analysis of urban issues. While the emphasis is on designing research strategies in the context of public policy, students interested in other areas should also consider this course. This course is designed to help students prepare for their senior thesis. Form and topic will vary. Enrollment may be limited. (Arbona, Division I or III) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B218 Globalization and the City

This course introduces students to contemporary issues related to the urban built environment in Africa, Asia and Latin America (collectively referred to as the Third World or developing countries) and the implications of recent political and economic changes. (Arbona, Division I) Not offered 2005-06.

CITY B221 U.S. Economic History

(Redenius, Division I; cross-listed as ECON B221)

CITY B222 Introduction to Environmental Issues: Movements, Controversies and Policy-Making in Comparative Perspective

(Hager, Division I; cross-listed as POLS B222) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B226 Introduction to Architectural and Urban Design

An introduction to the principles of architectural and urban design. Prerequisites: some history of art or history of architecture and permission of instructor. (Olshin, Voith, Division III)

CITY B227 Topics in Modern Planning

An introduction to planning that focuses, depending on year and professor, on a general overview of the field or on specific cities or contexts. (Hein, Division I; cross-listed as HART B227)

CITY B228 Problems in Architectural Design

A continuation of Cities 226 at a more advanced level. Prerequisites: Growth and Structure of Cities 226 or other comparable design work and permission of instructor. (Olshin, Voith, Division III)

CITY B229 Comparative Urbanism

An examination of approaches to urban development that focuses on intensive study and systematic comparison of individual cities through an original research paper. Themes and cities vary from year to year, although a variety of cultural areas are examined in each offering. In 2006, for example, the class examines growth beyond cities - suburbs, "grand ensembles," new towns, gated communities, shantytowns and sprawl. Case materials will come from Buenos Aires, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Paris and Philadelphia (Levittown). (McDonogh, Division I; cross-listed as ANTH B229 and EAST B229)

CITY B230 Topics in German Cultural Series: Kafka's Prague

(Kenosian, Pavsek, Division I or III; cross-listed as GERM B223) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B232 Latin American Urban Development

A theoretical and empirical analysis in a historical setting of the factors that have shaped the urban development of Latin America, with emphasis on the relationship between political and social change and economic growth. In 2006, the class will focus on Brazilian modernism in architecture, literature and other areas. (Sandler, Division I; cross-listed as HART B232)

CITY B234 Environmental Economics

(Ross, Division I; cross-listed as ECON B234)

CITY B237 Urbanization in Africa

(Ngalamulume, Division I or III; cross-listed as HIST B237)

CITY B242 Urban Field Research Methods

(Takenaka, Division I; cross-listed as ANTH B242 and SOCL B242)

CITY B244 Great Empires of the Ancient Near East

(Ataç, Division I or III; cross-listed as ARCH B244 and HIST B244)

CITY B246 Women's Narratives on Modern Migrancy, Exile, and Diasporas

(Seyhan, Division III; cross-listed as ANTH B246, COML B245 and GERM B245) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B248 Modern Middle Eastern Cities

(Harrold; cross-listed as HEBR B248 and POLS B248)

CITY B249 Sociological Perspectives on Asian American Communities

(Takenaka, Division I; cross-listed as ANTH B249 and SOCL B249)

CITY B253 Survey of Western Architecture

The major traditions in Western architecture are illustrated through detailed analysis of selected examples from classical antiquity to the present. The evolution of architectural design and building technology, and the larger intellectual, aesthetic and social context in which this evolution occurred, are considered. (Cast, Hein, Division III; cross-listed as ANTH B254, HIST B253 and HART B253) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B254 History of Modern Architecture

A survey of the development of modern architecture since the 18th century, with principal emphasis on the period since 1890. (Sandler, Division III; cross-listed as HART B254)

CITY B255 Survey of American Architecture

An examination of forms, figures, contexts and imaginations in the construction of the American built environment from colonial times to the present. Materials in and from Philadelphia figure as major resources. (Cohen, Division III; cross-listed as HART B255)

CITY B266 Schools in American Cities

(Cohen, Division I; cross-listed as EDUC B266 and SOCL B266)

CITY B267 Philadelphia, 1763 to Present

(Shore, Division I or III; cross-listed as HIST B267)

CITY B270 Japanese Architecture and Planning

The built environment in Japan does not resemble its American or European counterparts, leading visitors to characterize it as visually chaotic even as recent observers praise its lively traditional neighborhoods. This course explores characteristics of Japanese cities, their history and presence, and examine the particular cultural, political, economic and social contexts of urban form in Japan. (Hein, Division III; cross-listed as EAST B270 and HART B270) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B272 Race and Place in Urban America

(Shedd, Division I; cross-listed as SOCL B272)

CITY B302 Greek Architecture

(Wright, Division III; cross-listed as ARCH B302 and HART B301) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B305 Ancient Athens: Monuments and Art

(Miller-Collett; cross-listed as ARCH B305)

CITY B306 Advanced Fieldwork Techniques: Places in Time

A seminar and workshop for research into the history of place, with student projects presented in digital form on the Web. Architectural and urban history, research methods and resources for probing the history of place, the use of tools for creating Web pages and digitizing images, and the design for informational experiences are examined. (Cohen, Division I or III)

CITY B312 Medieval Cities

(Easton, Division III; cross-listed as HART B311)

CITY B314 Topics in Social Policy

(Newburger, Division I; cross-listed as ECON B314)

CITY B316 Trade and Transport in the Ancient World

(staff, Division III; cross-listed as ARCH B316) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B319 Advanced Topics in German Cultural Studies

(Meyer, Division I; cross-listed as GERM B321)

CITY B321 Technology and Politics

(Hager; cross-listed as POLS B321)

CITY B324 Roman Architecture

(Scott, Division III; cross-listed as ARCH B324, CSTS B324 and HART B324) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B325 Topics in Social History: Comparative History of Advertising in the U.S. and Europe Between 1850 and 1920

(Shore, Division I or III; cross-listed as HIST B325) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B330 Comparative Economic Sociology: Societies of the North and South

(Osirim; cross-listed as SOCL B330) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B331 Palladio and Neo-Palladianism

(Cast; cross-listed as HART B331) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B334 Seminar on the Economics of Poverty and Discrimination

(Newburger, Division I; cross-listed as ECON B324) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B335 Elite and Popular Culture

An examination of urban culture as a ground for conflict, domination and resistance through both theoretical and applied analysis of production, texts, readings and social action within a political/economic framework. In 2004, for example, this course dealt with the city and mass media, including imagery, ownership, audience and reinterpretation as well as critical cultural policy. Materials were drawn from U.S. and global media, from comics to the Internet, with special emphasis on film and television. (McDonogh, Division I; cross-listed as ANTH B335) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B338 The New African Diaspora: African and Caribbean Immigrants in the U.S.

(cross-listed as SOCL B338) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B348 Culture and Ethnic Conflict

(Ross; cross-listed as POLS B348)

CITY B351 The Phoenicians

(Turfa, Division III; cross-listed as ARCH B351)

CITY B360 Topics in Urban Culture and Society: Cities and the Bourgeoisie

Class relations, conflictive and creative, are at the heart of urban change. While working class movements and elite domination are central to our discussions of urban culture, the emergence, demands and anxieties of urban middle classes often have been treated as a backdrop for any discussion. This seminar will bring the nature, divisions, impact and fear of middle classes worldwide into sharper focus, drawing on historical and contemporary materials from Asia, Europe, Latin America and North America. Limited to 15 with preference for cities majors and related majors.(Hein, Division I or III; cross-listed as ANTH B359, GERM B321 and HART B359)

CITY B365 Techniques of the City: Models, Codes and Citizenship

Drawing on case studies and theoretical materials, this seminar asks how good and bad cities come to be defined, explores the culture of those who define the city and consider the impact of gender, sexuality, race, immigration and power relations on such mappings. Students will also meet with planners and develop charette projects in order to explore how we can move critically beyond our models. Enrollment limited to 15 by permission of the instructor. Preference given to majors. (McDonogh, Division I) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B377 Topics in Modern Architecture: Berlin

(Sandler, Division III; cross-listed as HART B377)

CITY B378 Formative Landscapes: The Architecture and Planning of American Collegiate Campuses

An exploration of the architecture, planning and visual rhetoric of American collegiate campuses from their early history to the present. Historical consideration of design trends and projected imageries will be complemented by student exercises involving documentary research on design genesis and contexts, discussion of critical reception, evidence of contemporary performance and perception, and digital presentation. (Cohen, Division III) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B397 Senior Seminar in Environmental Studies

(staff; cross-listed as ANTH B397, BIOL B397 and GEOL B397)

CITY B398 Senior Seminar

An intensive research seminar. (Sandler, McDonogh)

CITY B399 Senior Thesis

An intensive research seminar. (staff) Not offered in 2005-06.

CITY B403 Independent Study

CITY B450 Internships

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