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Students may complete a major or minor in Economics. Within the major, students may complete a concentration in environmental studies.


Janet Ceglowski, Professor (on leave semester II)
Harriet B. Newburger, Associate Professor (on leave semester I)
Scott Redenius, Assistant Professor
Michael Rock, Professor (on leave semester I)
David R. Ross, Associate Professor and Chair
Richard Stahnke, Lecturer

The economics curriculum consists of courses given at Bryn Mawr and Haverford. It is designed to provide an understanding of economic processes and institutions and the interactions among economic, political and social structures. The curriculum assists undergraduates in mastering the methods used by economists to analyze those processes and institutions and it enables students to make reasoned assessments of alternative public policies in a wide range of fields.

ECON 105 (or 101 and 102 at Haverford) introduces the theories and operating characteristics of modern economies that an educated person should understand; it also prepares students for further work in economics and its policy and business applications. Subsequent courses in economics build on the principles and analytical tools learned in ECON 105. Courses in the 130 series apply the theories and tools learned in ECON 105 to current issues in economic policy and analysis.

Courses at the 200 level serve majors by providing gateways to the major subfields of economics and offer other students a range of topics that complement their studies in other disciplines. Two intermediate theory courses (ECON 300 and 302) examine in depth the workings of the price system in allocating economic resources and the aggregate processes that determine employment, inflation and growth. When combined with the tools of quantitative empirical analysis (ECON 203 and 304), these courses supply a methodological and theoretical foundation for those planning to use economics in their professional careers. Advanced seminars provide a critical appreciation for the process of economic research through careful evaluation of professional journal articles and written work, including the senior research paper.

Major Requirements

Requirements for the major are 10 semester courses in economics, including ECON 105: Principles of Economics; ECON 203: Statistical Methods in Economics; ECON 300: Intermediate Microeconomics; ECON 302: Intermediate Macroeconomics; plus at least two additional semester courses of 300-level work. At least eight of the 10 required courses must be taken above the 100 level and have ECON 105, or ECON 101 or 102 at Haverford, as a prerequisite. At least one 300-level course that requires a substantial research paper must be taken, preferably in the senior year. ECON 304, 306, 313, 314, 320, 324, 335 and 395 either require or can incorporate such a paper.

Students should carefully consult individual course descriptions for prerequisites, which can differ between Bryn Mawr and Haverford. In most cases, ECON 101 and 102 at Haverford may substitute for ECON 105 at Bryn Mawr; while 105 and an additional elective substitute for 101 and 102 at Haverford. Depending on the topics covered, ECON 100 with a grade of 3.0 or higher may substitute for ECON 101 or 102. MATH 101 (or equivalent) is a prerequisite for ECON 300, 302 and 304 at Bryn Mawr; MATH 102 (or equivalent) is a prerequisite for ECON 300 and 302 at Haverford.

Prospective majors in economics are advised to take ECON 105 (or 101 and 102 at Haverford) by the end of the first semester of sophomore year. ECON 203, ECON 300 and ECON 302 must be completed by the end of the junior year. Students whose grade in ECON 105 (or ECON 101 and 102 at Haverford) is 2.3 or below are advised not to major in economics. Students planning to spend junior year studying abroad must complete ECON 105 (or 101 and 102) and 203, and at least one other 200-level course, by the end of sophomore year. It is suggested that two or three 200-level courses be taken as background for 300-level courses. Members of the department should be consulted about desirable sequences of courses.

Students intending to pursue graduate work in economics are strongly urged to enroll in ECON 304. Those intending to pursue graduate work in economics should also strongly consider a minor or double major in mathematics. Math courses that are particularly appropriate are MATH 101 and 102, Calculus with Analytical Geometry; MATH 201, Multivariable Calculus; MATH 203, Linear Algebra; MATH 205, Theory of Probability and Applications; MATH 210, Differential Equations with Applications; and MATH 301 and 302, Introduction to Real Analysis. Students considering graduate school are strongly urged to consult with members of the department of mathematics no later than the end of the sophomore year.


An economics major with a GPA of 3.7 in economics or higher, including economics courses taken in the second semester of the senior year graduate with honors in economics.

Minor Requirements

Requirements for the minor in economics include ECON 105 (or 101 and 102), 203 and a coherent selection of four or more additional courses approved in advance by the department chair.

Concentration in Environmental Studies

The Department of Economics participates with other departments in offering a concentration within the major in environmental studies.

ECON B105 Principles of Economics

An introduction to micro- and macroeconomics: opportunity cost, supply and demand; consumer choice, the firm and output decisions; market structures; efficiency and market failure; the determination of national income, including government spending, money and interest rates; unemployment, inflation and public policy. (Newburger, Redenius, Stahnke, Division I)

ECON B203 Statistical Methods in Economics

An introduction to econometric terminology and reasoning. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability and statistical inference. Particular emphasis is placed on regression analysis and on the use of data to address economic issues. The required computational techniques are developed as part of the course. Prerequisites: ECON 105, or 101 and 102, and a 200-level elective or permission of instructor. (Vartanian, Quantitative Skills; cross-listed as CITY B206)

ECON B206 International Trade

Study of the major theories offered to explain international trade. Includes analyses of the effects of trade barriers (tariffs, quotas, nontariff barriers), trade liberalization and foreign investment by multinational corporations on growth, poverty, inequality and the environment. Prerequisite: ECON 105 or 101 and 102. (Stahnke, Division I)

ECON B207 Money and Banking

Analysis of the development and present organization of the financial system of the United States , focusing on the monetary and payment systems, financial markets and financial intermediaries. Prerequisites: ECON 105, or 101 and 102. (Redenius, Division I)

ECON B213 Taming the Modern Corporation

Introduction to the economics of industrial organization and regulation, focusing on policy options for ensuring that corporations enhance economic welfare and the quality of life. Topics include firm behavior in imperfectly competitive markets; theoretical bases of antitrust laws; regulation of product and occupational safety, environmental pollution and truth in advertising. Prerequisite: ECON 101 or 105. (Ross, Division I; cross-listed as CITY B213) Not offered in 2007-08.

ECON B214 Public Finance

Analysis of government's role in resource allocation, emphasizing effects of tax and expenditure programs on income distribution and economic efficiency. Topics include sources of inefficiency in markets and possible government responses; federal budget composition; social insurance and antipoverty programs; U.S. tax structure and incidence. Prerequisites: ECON 105 or 101. (staff, Division I; cross-listed as CITY B214)

ECON B215 Urban Economics

Micro- and macroeconomic theory applied to urban economic behavior. Topics include housing and land use; transportation; urban labor markets; urbanization; and demand for and financing of urban services. Prerequisite: ECON 105, or 101 and 102. (staff, Division I; cross-listed as CITY B215) Not offered in 2007-08.

ECON B216 International Macroeconomics and International Finance

Introduction to the theory of and current issues in international macroeconomics and international finance. Examination of the role of international factors in macroeconomic performance; policymaking in an open economy; exchange rate systems and exchange rate behavior; international financial integration; and international financial crises. Prerequisite: ECON 102 or 105. (Ceglowski, Division I)

ECON B221 U.S. Economic History

Study of the evolution of the economy of what is today the United States from the period of European settlement through the Great Depression. The course examines the roles played by technology, the environment, government and the nation's evolving economic institutions on the course of its economic development. Prerequisites: ECON 105, or 101 and 102. (Redenius, Division I; cross-listed as CITY B221) Not offered in 2007-08.

ECON B225 Economic Development

Examination of the issues related to and the policies designed to promote economic development in the developing economies of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East . Focus is on why some developing economies grow faster than others and why some growth paths are more equitable, poverty reducing and environmentally sustainable than others. Includes consideration of the impact of international trade and investment policy, macroeconomic policies (exchange rate, monetary and fiscal policy) and sector policies (industry, agriculture, education, population and environment) on development outcomes in a wide range of political and institutional contexts. Prerequisite: ECON 105, or 101 and 102. (Rock, Division I; cross-listed as CITY B225) Not offered in 2007-08.

ECON B234 Environmental Economics

Introduction to the use of economic analysis to explain the underlying behavioral causes of environmental and natural resource problems and to evaluate policy responses to them. Topics may include air and water pollution; the economic theory of externalities, public goods and the depletion of resources; cost-benefit analysis; valuing nonmarket benefits and costs; economic justice; and sustainable development. Prerequisites: ECON 105, or 101 and 102. (Rock, Division I; cross-listed as CITY B234)

ECON B236 The Economics of Globalization

An introduction to international economics through theory, policy issues and problems. The course surveys international trade and finance, as well as topics in international economics. It investigates why and what a nation trades, the consequences of such trade, the role of trade policy, the behavior and effects of exchange rates, and the macroeconomic implications of trade and capital flows. Topics may include the economics of free trade areas, world financial crises, outsourcing, immigration and foreign investment. Prerequisites: ECON 105, or 101 and 102. The course is not open to students who have taken ECON 206, 216 or 348. (Ceglowski, Division I; cross-listed as CITY B238)

ECON B300 Intermediate Microeconomics

Systematic development of the analytical framework economists use to explain the behavior of consumers and firms. Determination of price; partial and general equilibria; welfare economics. Application to current economic problems. Prerequisites: ECON 105, or 101 and 102, MATH 101 (or equivalent), junior standing, or sophomore standing and one 200-level applied microeconomics elective. (Ross, Division I)

ECON B302 Intermediate Macroeconomics

The goal of this course is to provide a thorough understanding of the behavior of the aggregate economy and the likely effects of government stabilization policies. Models of output, inflation, unemployment and interest rates are developed, along with theories of consumption, investment, economic growth, exchange rates and the trade balance. These models are used to analyze the likely macroeconomic effects of fiscal and monetary policies and to explore current macroeconomic issues and problems. Prerequisites: ECON 105, or 101 and 102, MATH 101 or equivalent, and sophomore standing or permission of the instructor. (Rock, Division I)

ECON B304 Introduction to Econometrics

The econometric theory presented in ECON 203 is further developed and its most important empirical applications are considered. Each student does an empirical research project using multiple regression and other statistical techniques. Prerequisites: ECON 203, 300, or both 302 and MATH 201. (Newburger, Division I)

ECON B306 Research Seminar: International Economics

Thesis seminar. Each student does a semester-long research project on a relevant topic of interest. Research topics in international trade or trade policy, international finance, international macroeconomics and international economic integration are appropriate. Prerequisites: ECON 206 and 300 or ECON 216 and 302, or permission of instructor. (Ceglowski, Division I)

ECON B313 Industrial Organization and Public Policy

Thesis seminar focusing on the ways that property rights, market structure, firm behavior and public policies interact to determine the impact of industries on economic welfare. Prerequisites: ECON 203, 300 and 213 or 234, or permission of instructor. (Ross, Division I) Not offered in 2007-08.

ECON B314 Research Seminar: Topics in Social Policy

Thesis course for students with a background in one or more of the applied microeconomic fields concerned with social policy, including public finance, labor, urban economics and state and local economics. Each student does a semester-long research project on a relevant topic of interest. Examples of research topics include differences in resources and expenditures among communities; income distribution; the results of government programs to alleviate poverty; and discrimination. Prerequisites: ECON 203, 300 and at least one course from among 204, 208, 214, 215 or 324, or permission of instructor. (Newburger, Division I; cross-listed as CITY B314)

ECON B320 Research Seminar on the Financial System

Thesis seminar. Each student does a semester-long research project on a relevant topic of interest. Research topics may include the monetary and payment systems, financial markets and financial intermediaries from a microeconomic perspective. Group meetings will involve presentation and discussion of research in progress. Prerequisites: ECON 207, 300 and permission of instructor. (Redenius)

ECON B324 Seminar on the Economics of Poverty and Discrimination

Typically includes three modules covering topics in poverty and discrimination, two of which are chosen by the instructor; the third is chosen jointly by the instructor and the students. Examples include housing and labor market discrimination; distributional issues in educational finance; growth of inequality in the United States . Prerequisites: for economics majors, ECON 203 and 300 and at least one course among ECON 204, 208, 214 or 215; for nonmajors, a statistics course and at least one course among ECON 204, 208, 214 or 215; or permission of instructor. (Newburger, Division I; cross-listed as CITY B334) Not offered in 2007-08.

ECON B335 East Asian Development

Identifies the core economic and political elements of an East Asian newly industrializing economies (NIEs) development model. Assesses the performance of this development model in Northeast ( Korea and Taiwan ) and Southeast Asia ( Indonesia , Malaysia and Thailand ) in a comparative perspective. Considers the debate over the impact of interventionist and selective development policies associated with this model on the development successes and failures of the East Asian NIEs. Prerequisites: ECON 300 or 302, or permission of instructor. (Rock, Division I; cross-listed as CITY B336 and EAST B335 ) Not offered in 2007-08.

ECON B350 Policy Analysis and Economic Advocacy

The goal of this seminar is mastering the ability to translate the fruits of academic research and applied economic analysis for audiences outside of the academy. Participants will collaborate with faculty colleagues in the production of publishable advocacy papers in the context of two topical policy modules. Prerequisites: ECON B203, B300, B302 and at least one 200-level elective. (Ross, Stahnke)

ECON B385 Democracy and Development

From 1974 to the late 1990's the number of democracies grew from 39 to 117. This “third wave,” the collapse of communism and developmental successes in East Asia have led some to argue the triumph of democracy and markets. Since the late 1990's, democracy's third wave has stalled, and some fear a reverse wave and democratic breakdowns. We will question this phenomenon through the disciplines of economics, history, political science and sociology drawing from theoretical, case study and classical literature. Prerequisite: one year of study in political science or economics. (Rock, M. Ross, Division I; cross-listed as POLS B385)

ECON B395 Research Seminar in Economic Development

Senior thesis seminar on economic development. Each student is expected to engage in a semester long research project on a relevant topic in economic development. The major work product for the seminar is a senior research paper of refereed journal article length. Students are expected to participate in all group meetings and all one-on-one meetings with the professor. Prerequisites: ECON 225 and either ECON 300 or 302. (Rock, Division I) Not offered in 2007-08.

ECON B403 Supervised Work

An economics major may elect to do individual research. A semester-long research paper is required; it satisfies the 300-level research paper requirement. Students who register for 403 must submit an application form before the beginning of the semester (the form is available from the department chair). The permission of both the supervising faculty member and department chair is required. (staff)

ECON B425 Praxis III: Independent Study


The Haverford Department of Economics is expected to offer the following courses during the 2007-08 academic year:

ECON H100 Economics of Public Policy
ECON H101 Introduction to Microeconomics
ECON H102 Introduction to Macroeconomics
ECON H203 Statistical Methods in Economics
ECON H204 Economic Statistics with Calculus
ECON H209 Law and Economics
ECON H210 Linear Optimization and Game Theory
ECON H211 The Soviet System and Its Demise
ECON H223 Sports Economics
ECON H234 Monetary Theory
ECON H240 Economic Development: India and China
ECON H249 Introduction to Political Economy and Game Theory
ECON H297 Economic Sociology
ECON H300 Intermediate Microeconomic Analysis
ECON H302 Intermediate Macroeconomic Analysis
ECON H304 Econometrics
ECON H312 General Equilibrium Theory
ECON H347 Advanced Seminar: Open Economy Macroeconomics
ECON H348 Global Economy: Theory and Evidence


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