20109-2011 Undergraduate Catalog

Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology

Students may complete a major or minor in Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology.


Mehmet-Ali Ataç, Associate Professor (on leave semesters I and II)
A. A. Donohue, Professor
Jean M. Evans, Visiting Assistant Professor
Astrid Lindenlauf, Assistant Professor
Peter Magee, Associate Professor (on leave semester II)
James C. Wright, Professor and Chair

The curriculum of the department focuses on the cultures of the Mediterranean regions and the Near East in antiquity. Courses treat aspects of society and material culture of these civilizations as well as issues of theory, method and interpretation.

Major Requirements

The major requires a minimum of 10 courses. Core requirements are two 100-level courses distributed between the ancient Near East and Egypt and ancient Greece and Rome and two semesters of the senior conference. At least two upper-level courses should be distributed between classical and Near Eastern subjects and one other should concern method and theory in archaeology (ARCH 330 and ANTH 220). Additional requirements are determined in consultation with the major adviser. Additional coursework in subjects related to archaeology may be accepted for major credit; such courses are offered in the Departments of Anthropology, Geology, Greek, Latin and Classical Studies, Growth and Structure of Cities, and History of Art.

Each student’s course of study to meet major requirements will be determined in consultation with the undergraduate major adviser in the spring semester of the sophomore year. Students considering majoring in the department are encouraged to take the introductory courses early in their undergraduate career and should also seek advice from departmental faculty. Students who are interested in interdisciplinary concentrations or in study abroad during the junior year are strongly advised to seek assistance in planning their major early in their sophomore year.

Concentration in Geoarchaeology

The Departments of Anthropology, Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology, and Geology offer a concentration in geoarchaeology for existing majors in these departments. Please consult with Professor Magee regarding this program.

Requirements for the concentration:

1. Two 100-level units from Anthropology, Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology or Geology, of which one must be from the department outside the student’s major.

2. ANTH/ARCH/GEOL 270: Geoarchaeology (Magee, Barber).

3. BIOL/ARCH/GEOL 328: Geospatial Data Analysis and GIS (staff).

4. Two elective courses, to be chosen in consultation with the major adviser, from among current offerings in Anthropology, Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology and Geology. One of these two courses must be from outside the student’s major. Suggested courses include but are not limited to ANTH 203 (Human Ecology), ANTH 220 (Methods and Theory), ANTH 225 (Paleolithic Archaeology), ANTH 240 (Traditional Technologies), ARCH 308 (Ceramic Analysis), ARCH 332 (Field Techniques), GEOL 202 (Mineralogy), GEOL 205 (Sedimentology), GEOL 310 (Geophysics), and GEOL 312 (Quaternary Climates).


Honors are granted on the basis of academic performance as demonstrated by a cumulative average of 3.5 or better in the major.

Independent Research

Majors who wish to undertake independent research, especially for researching and writing a lengthy paper, must arrange with a professor who is willing to advise them, and consult with the major adviser. Such research normally would be conducted by seniors as a unit of supervised work (403), which must be approved by the advising professor before registration.

Minor Requirements

The minor requires six courses. Core requirements are two 100-level courses distributed between the ancient Near East and Egypt and ancient Greece and Rome in addition to four other courses selected in consultation with the major adviser.


Majors who contemplate graduate study in classical fields should incorporate Greek and Latin into their programs. Those who plan graduate work in Near Eastern or Egyptian may take appropriate ancient languages at the University of Pennsylvania, such as Middle Egyptian, Akkadian and Sumerian. Any student considering graduate study in classical and Near Eastern archaeology should study French and German.


The department strongly encourages students to gain fieldwork experience and assists them in getting positions on field projects in North America and overseas. The department is undertaking several field projects in which undergraduates may be invited to participate.

Professor Peter Magee conducts a for-credit field school at Muweilah, al-Hamriya and Tell Abraq in the United Arab Emirates. Undergraduate and graduate students in archaeology participate in this project, which usually takes place during the winter break.

Professor James Wright directs the Nemea Valley Archaeological Project in Greece, which concluded all fieldwork in 2010 and is being published. The project continues in study and publication phase.

The department is collaborating with Professor Aslı Özyar (Ph.D., Bryn Mawr College, 1991) of Boğaziçi University in Istanbul, in the Tarsus Regional Project, Turkey, sponsored by Boğaziçi University. This is a long-term investigation of the mound at Gözlü Küle at Tarsus, in Cilicia, which was first excavated by Hetty Goldman, A.B. 1903. Both undergraduate and graduate students in archaeology participate in this project.

Museum Internships

The department is awarded annually two internships by the Nicholas P. Goulandris Foundation for students to work for a month in the Museum of Cycladic Art in Athens, Greece, with an additional two weeks at an archaeological field project. This is an all-expense paid internship for which students may submit an application.

Opportunities to work with the College’s archaeology collections are available throughout the academic year and during the summer. Students wishing to work with the collections should consult Marianne Weldon, Collections Manager for Art and Artifacts.

Study Abroad

A semester of study abroad is encouraged if the program is approved by the department. Students are encouraged to consult with faculty, since some programs the department may approve may not yet be listed at the Office of International Programs. Major credit for courses taken is given on a case-by-case basis after review of the syllabus, work submitted for a grade, and a transcript. Normally credit will not be given for more than one course and not for courses that are ordinarily offered by the department.

ARCH B101 Introduction to Egyptian and Near Eastern Archaeology: Egypt and Mesopotamia
A historical survey of the archaeology and art of the ancient Near East and Egypt.
(Evans, Division III: Humanities)

ARCH B102 Introduction to Classical Archaeology
A historical survey of the archaeology and art of Greece, Etruria, and Rome. Three hours of class, one hour of special topics each week.
(Donohue, Lindenlauf, Division III: Humanities)
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B104 Archaeology of Agricultural and Urban Revolutions
From Egypt to India This course examines the archaeology of the two most fundamental changes that have occurred in human society in the last 12,000 years, agriculture and urbanism, and we explore these in Egypt and the Near East as far as India. We also explore those societies that did not experience these changes.
(Magee, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as CITY B104
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B105 Introduction to Greek Art and Archaeology
This course examines the visual arts and material culture of the ancient Greek world, and reviews past and present approaches to archaeological and art historical research in the area. We will focus on the time span of roughly 1,000 years from the so-called Dark Age through the Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods, circa 1100 to 31 B.C.E. Proceeding more or less in chronological order, we will explore major excavated sites, such as Athens, Delphi, Olympia, and Pergamon, and discuss key examples of architecture, sculpture, painting, mosaics, and portable arts as documents of social, religious, and cultural history.
(Lindenlauf, Division III: Humanities)
This is a half-semester, half-credit course.

ARCH B106 Introduction to Roman Art and Archaeology
From its emergence in central Italy in the 8th century B.C.E., Rome developed into an empire extending from western Europe through the Near East. This course surveys Roman material culture through the 4th century C.E. Emphasis is on the interpretation of monuments and artifacts in historical and social context.
(Donohue, Division III: Humanities)
This is a half-semester, half-credit course.

ARCH B110 The World Through Classical Eyes
A survey of the ways in which the ancient Greeks and Romans perceived and constructed their physical and social world. The evidence of ancient texts and monuments will form the basis for exploring such subjects as cosmology, geography, travel and commerce, ancient ethnography and anthropology, the idea of natural and artificial wonders, and the self-definition of the classical cultures in the context of the oikoumene, the “inhabited world.”
(Donohue, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as CITY B110
Cross-listed as CSTS B110

ARCH B115 Classical Art
An introduction to the visual arts of ancient Greece and Rome from the Bronze Age through Late Imperial times (circa 3000 B.C.E. to 300 C.E.). Major categories of artistic production are examined in historical and social context, including interactions with neighboring areas and cultures; methodological and interpretive issues are highlighted.
(Donohue, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as CITY B115
Cross-listed as CSTS B115
Cross-listed as HART B115
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B120 The Archaeology, Anthropology and Sociology of Rubbish
This course aims to introduce students to a range of approaches to the study of disposal practices in past and present societies. Particular attention will be paid to the interpretation of spatial disposal patterns, the power of dirt(y waste) to create boundaries and difference, and types and motivations of recycling.
(Lindenlauf, Division III: Humanities)
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B125 Classical Myths in Art and in the Sky
This course explores Greek and Roman mythology using an archaeological and art historical approach, focusing on the ways in which the traditional tales of the gods and heroes were depicted, developed and transmitted in the visual arts such as vase painting and architectural sculpture, as well as projected into the natural environment.
(Lindenlauf, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as CSTS B125
Cross-listed as HART B125
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B130 The Bronze Age
This short course is about the notion of the Bronze Age and its archaeological manifestation in the Aegean, Eastern Mediterranean and the Near East. It explores the notion that the discovery of metals and the development of metallurgy spurred the formation of “metal economies,” which led to the expansion of civilizations in the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C.E.
(Wright, Division III: Humanities)
This is a half-semester, half-credit course.

ARCH B135 Archaeological Fieldwork and Methods
In this short course, students will learn the fundamentals of the practice of archaeology through readings and case studies and participatory demonstrations. The course is based on a well-known up-to-date introductory text in archaeology. Case studies will be drawn from the archives of the Nemea Valley Archaeological Project and material in the College’s collections. Each week there will be a 2-hour laboratory that will introduce students to a variety of fieldwork methods and forms of analysis.
This is a half-semester, half-credit course.

ARCH B160 Daily Life in Ancient Greece and Rome
The often-praised achievements of the classical cultures arose from the realities of day-to-day life. This course surveys the rich body of archaeological and literary evidence pertaining to how ancient Greeks and Romans—famous and obscure alike—lived and died. Topics include housing, food, clothing, work, leisure and family and social life.
(Donohue, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as CITY B160
Cross-listed as CSTS B160
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B203 Ancient Greek Cities and Sanctuaries
A study of the development of the Greek city-states and sanctuaries. Archaeological evidence is surveyed in its historic context. The political formation of the city-state and the role of religion is presented, and the political, economic, and religious institutions of the city-states are explored in their urban settings. The city-state is considered as a particular political economy of the Mediterranean and in comparison to the utility of the concept of city-state in other cultures.
(Wright, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as CITY B203

ARCH B205 Greek Sculpture
One of the best-preserved categories of evidence for ancient Greek culture is sculpture. The Greeks devoted immense resources to producing sculpture that encompassed many materials and forms and served a variety of important social functions. This course examines sculptural production in Greece and neighboring lands from the Bronze Age through the fourth century B.C.E. with special attention to style, iconography and historical and social context.
(Donohue, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as HART B204
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B206 Hellenistic and Roman Sculpture
This course surveys the sculpture produced from the fourth century B.C.E. to the fourth century C.E., the period beginning with the death of Alexander the Great that saw the transformation of the classical world through the rise of Rome and the establishment and expansion of the Roman Empire. Style, iconography, and production will be studied in the contexts of the culture of the Hellenistic kingdoms, the Roman appropriation of Greek culture, the role of art in Roman society, and the significance of Hellenistic and Roman sculpture in the post-antique classical tradition.
(Donohue, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as HART B206

ARCH B209 Aegean Archaeology
The prehistoric cultures of the Aegean area beginning with the origins of agriculture (circa 6500 B.C.E.) and ending with the end of the Late Bronze Age (circa 1100 B.C.E.) with a focus on the palaces of Crete (Knossos, Phaistos, Mallia), Troy, the Aegean Islands (Akrotiri on Thera), and Mycenaean Greece (Mycenae, Tiryns, Thebes, Athens, Pylos).
(Wright, Division III: Humanities)

ARCH B220 Araby the Blest: The Archaeology of the Arabian Peninsula from 3000 to 300 B.C.E.
A survey of the archaeology and history of the Arabian peninsula focusing on urban forms, transport, and cultures in the Arabian peninsula and Gulf and their interactions with the world from the rise of states in Mesopotamia down to the time of Alexander the Great.
(Magee, Division III: Humanities)

ARCH B224 Women in the Ancient Near East
A survey of the social position of women in the ancient Near East, from sedentary villages to empires of the first millennium B.C.E. Topics include critiques of traditional concepts of gender in archaeology and theories of matriarchy. Case studies illustrate the historicity of gender concepts: women’s work in early village societies; the meanings of Neolithic female figurines; the representation of gender in the Gilgamesh epic; the institution of the “Tawananna” (queen) in the Hittite empire; the indirect power of women such as Semiramis in the Neo-Assyrian palaces. Reliefs, statues, texts and more indirect archaeological evidence are the basis for discussion.
(Magee, Division III: Humanities)
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B226 Archaeology of Anatolia
One of the cradles of civilization, Anatolia witnessed the rise and fall of many cultures and states throughout its ancient history. This course approaches the ancient material remains of pre-classical Anatolia from the perspective of Near Eastern archaeology, examining the art, artifacts, architecture, cities, and settlements of this land from the Neolithic through the Lydian periods. Some emphasis will be on the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age, especially phases of Hittite and Assyrian imperialism, Late Hittite states, Phrygia, and the Urartu.
(Ataç, Division III: Humanities)
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B228 The Archaeology of Iran: From the Neolithic to Alexander the Great
Examines the archaeology of Iran and its eastern neighbors from circa 8000 B.C.E. to the coming of Alexander at the end of the fourth century B.C.E. Focus on the emergence of agriculture and urbanism and the appearance of the Achaemenid Empire, examined in the light of contacts with states in Mesopotamia and South Asia and the abilities of the ancient inhabitants of Iran to exploit their environment.
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B234 Picturing Women in Classical Antiquity
We investigate representations of women in different media in ancient Greece and Rome, examining the cultural stereotypes of women and the gender roles that they reinforce. We also study the daily life of women in the ancient world, the objects that they were associated with in life and death and their occupations.
(Lindenlauf, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as CSTS B234
Cross-listed as HART B234
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B236 The Archaeology of Syria
Recent excavations in Syria have contributed important data to the major issues in ancient Near Eastern archaeology, including the onset of agriculture, the emergence of social stratification, and the rise of urbanism and empire. From the Palaeolithic period to the end of the Iron Age (circa 16,000-300 B.C.E.), this course will present the material culture of Syria and its parallels in neighboring regions.
(Evans, Division III: Humanities)

ARCH B240 Archaeology and History of Ancient Mesopotamia
A survey of the material culture of ancient Mesopotamia, modern Iraq, from the earliest phases of state formation (circa 3500 B.C.E.) through the Achaemenid Persian occupation of the Near East (circa 331 B.C.E.). Emphasis will be on art, artifacts, monuments, religion, kingship, and the cuneiform tradition. The survival of the cultural legacy of Mesopotamia into later ancient and Islamic traditions will also be addressed.
(Evans, Division III: Humanities)

ARCH B244 Great Empires of the Ancient Near East
A survey of the history, material culture, political and religious ideologies of, and interactions among, the five great empires of the ancient Near East of the second and first millennia B.C.E.: New Kingdom Egypt, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia, the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires in Mesopotamia, and the Persian Empire in Iran.
(Ataç, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as CITY B244
Cross-listed as HIST B244
Cross-listed as POLS B244
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B245 The Archaeology of Water
This course examines the distribution of water throughout the Middle East and Mediterranean and the archaeology of water exploitation and management over the last 12,000 years. Recent anthropological models that challenge the concept of “hydraulic civilization” are emphasized as are contemporary attempts to revive traditional and ancient technologies to preserve and better manage modern water resources.

ARCH B252 Pompeii
Introduces students to a nearly intact archaeological site whose destruction by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 C.E. was recorded by contemporaries. The discovery of Pompeii in the mid-1700s had an enormous impact on 18th- and 19th-century views of the Roman past as well as styles and preferences of the modern era. Informs students in classical antiquity, urban life, city structure, residential architecture, home decoration and furnishing, wall painting, minor arts and craft and mercantile activities within a Roman city.
(Staff, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as CITY B259
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B255 Show and Spectacle in Ancient Greece and Rome
Sport and spectacle in ancient Greece and Rome and how they compare to the institutions of education and sport in modern society. Topics are the Olympic games and other sanctuaries with athletic competitions, the built structures for athletics (stadium, gymnasium, baths, amphitheaters, circuses, and hippodrome) and spectacles, such as gladiatorial combat.
(Baertschi, Scott, Wright, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as CSTS B255
Cross-listed as CITY B260
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B268 Greek and Roman Architecture
The course will introduce the structure of Greek and Roman cities and sanctuaries, the variety of building types and monuments found within them, and how local populations used and lived in the architectural environment of the classical world.
Cross-listed as CITY B268
Cross-listed as HART B268
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B270 Geoarchaeology
Societies in the past depended on our human ancestors’ ability to interact with their environment. Geoarchaeology analyzes these interactions by combining archaeological and geological techniques to document human behavior while also reconstructing the past environment. Course meets twice weekly for lecture, discussion of readings and hands on exercises. Prerequisite: one course in anthropology, archaeology or geology.
(Barber, Magee)
Cross-listed as ANTH B270
Cross-listed as GEOL B270
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B274 Bioarchaeology
Cross-listed as ANTH B274
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B301 Greek Vase-Painting
This course is an introduction to the world of painted pottery of the Greek world, from the 10th to the 4th centuries B.C.E. We will interpret these images from an art-historical and socio-economic viewpoint. We will
also explore how these images relate to other forms of representation. Prerequisite: one course in classical archaeology or permission of instructor.
(Lindenlauf, Division III: Humanities)

ARCH B303 Classical Bodies
An examination of the conceptions of the human body evidenced in Greek and Roman art and literature, with emphasis on issues that have persisted in the Western tradition. Topics include the fashioning of concepts of male and female standards of beauty and their implications; conventions of visual representation; the nude; clothing and its symbolism; the athletic ideal; physiognomy; medical theory and practice; the visible expression of character and emotions; and the formulation of the “classical ideal” in antiquity and later times.
(Donohue, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as HART B305

ARCH B305 Ancient Athens: Acropolis
This course is an introduction to the Acropolis of Athens, perhaps the best-known acropolis in the world. We will explore its history, understand and interpret specific monuments and their sculptural decoration and engage in more recent discussions, for instance, on the role the Acropolis played in shaping the Hellenic identity.
(Lindenlauf, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as CITY B305
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B308 Ceramic Analysis
Pottery is a fundamental means of establishing the relative chronology of archaeological sites and of understanding past human behavior. Included are theories, methods and techniques of pottery description, analysis and interpretation. Topics include typology, seriation, ceramic characterization, production, function, exchange and the use of computers in pottery analysis. Laboratory work on pottery in the department collections. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B312 The Eastern Mediterranean in the Late Bronze Age
This course will cover economic and cultural interactions among the Levant, Cyprus, Anatolia, Egypt, and the Aegean. We will study the politics and powers in the Eastern Mediterranean circa 1500 to 1100 B.C.E.—the Egyptian and Hittite empires, the Mitanni, Ugarit and Syro-Palestinian polities, Cyprus and the Mycenaeans. Topics include: metallurgy, mercantile systems, seafaring, the Sea Peoples, systems collapse, and interpretive issues when working with archaeological and historical sources.
(Wright, Division III: Humanities)

ARCH B322 The Archaeology of the Roman Empire
An examination of the growth of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire at its height, from its acquisitions of the Hellenistic kingdoms (second and first centuries, B.C.E.) to its domination of Europe, North Africa and the Near East.
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B323 On the Trail of Alexander the Great
This course explores the world of Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic world on the basis of a variety of sources. Particular focus is put on the material culture of Macedonia and Alexander’s campaigns that changed forever the nature and boundaries of the Greek world. Prerequisite: a course in classical archaeology or permission of the instructor.
(Lindenlauf, Division III: Humanities)
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B326 Analysis of Geospatial Data Using GIS
Cross-listed as GEOL B328
Cross-listed as BIOL B328
Cross-listed as CITY B328

ARCH B330 Archaeological Theory and Method
An historical introduction to archaeological theory and methods. Topics: archaeology’s origins in the Renaissance; the formation of archaeology and geology and social scientific approaches to the human past; competing philosophies of knowledge, phenomenology and postmodern constructions of knowledge.
(Wright, Division III: Humanities)
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B342 Greek Architectural Sculpture
This course examines in depth a large and important body of remains from the Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic periods, that puts the sculpture in its architectural and cultural contexts, allowing study of original examples of Greek art that are couched in a relatively well established chronology.
(Staff, Division III: Humanities)
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B352 Ancient Egyptian Architecture: The New Kingdom
A proseminar that concentrates on the principles of ancient Egyptian monumental architecture with an emphasis on the New Kingdom. The primary focus of the course is temple design, but palaces, representative settlements, and examples of Graeco-Roman temples of the Nile Valley will also be dealt with.
(Ataç, Division III: Humanities)
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B355 Archaeology of the Achaemenid Empire in Cross Cultural Context
The Achaemenid Empire (538-332 B.C.E.) ruled the largest landmass of any of the ancient Near Eastern Empires. Attempts by archaeologists to understand the manner in which authority was asserted over this area have suffered from a reliance on biased historical sources, largely from the Classical World. This course uses archaeological data to re-examine the Achaemenid Empire in a global context. This data is examined through a methodological framework that emphasizes comparative studies of ancient and more recent Empires in Africa, the Americas, South Asia, and the Mediterranean.

ARCH B359 Topics in Classical Art and Archaeology
A research-oriented course taught in seminar format, treating issues of current interest in Greek and Roman art and archaeology. Prerequisites: 200-level coursework in some aspect of classical or related cultures, archeology or art history.
(Donohue, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as CSTS B359
Cross-listed as HART B358
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B369 Topics in Medieval History
(Truitt, Schwartz, Division III: Humanities)
Cross-listed as HIST B369
Cross-listed as CSTS B369)
Not offered in 2010-11.

ARCH B398 Senior Seminar
A weekly seminar on common topics with assigned readings and oral and written reports.

ARCH 399 Senior Seminar
A weekly seminar on common topics with assigned readings and oral and written reports.

ARCH B403 Supervised Work

ARCH B425 Praxis III: Independent Study