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words and concepts

.week. 1. 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6

7 . 9 .10 .11 .12

painting analysis

periodic tables








































































week 1 & 2
a metallic solid
packing structure
face centered cubic (fcc)
atomic structure
Bohr atom
Group 1 (in periodic table)
a molecular solid
Conceptual questions ---

--- which pigments had prehistoric use?

--- which ancient culture did the most development of pigment and dyes? ?

--- what are two examples of ancient pigments that were synthetic ?

--- what are two examples of ancient pigments that were 'natural' ?

--- what are the four colors that should be used by "any sober-minded painter", according to Pliny?

--- give one explanation for this greek ideal of fours colors.

--- how is the periodic table arranged, both left to right, and top to bottom?

--- which metal packing structure causes the greatest malleability and why?

--- how does the packing structure of copper differ from the solid structure of sulfur?

--- what is the form of copper in the patina? (think back to making the copper metal patinas in studiolab last week and what they looked like. )

--- which sub-stomic particle—protons, neutrons, electrons—most determines the behavior of an element ?

--- what is meant by the Bohr Structure of the atom?

--- how does the Bohr model help predict the behavior of an element?

weeks 3 - 5
a salt
a sulfur molecule, S8
redox reaction
ion exchange
galena - (PbS)
cinnabar - (HgS)
stibnite -(Sb2S3)
realgar (As3S4) & orpiment (As2S3)
Conceptual questions ---

--- what is the chemical formula of the tarnish on copper metal?

--- what form of copper is assoiated with the blue or blue-green colors of verdigris?

--- does oxygen prefer to become oxidized or reduced? what new oxygen species is formed?

--- what is the chemical name of the copper compound that is the pigment verdigris?

--- what is the connection between vinegar and the pigment verdigris? --- can you describe this connection in chemical terms?

--- what is the transition metal in the pigment prussian blue?

--- what is the chromophore in the pigment viridian?


--- which metal is isolated from cinnabar? from stibnite? from galena?

--- which metals can be mined directly from the earth?

--- which element (that you have seen and worked with) can be both oxidized and reduced?

--- which metal, copper or zinc, is highly reactive in acid?

week 6 -7
ion exchange
pit lime
Conceptual questions ---

--- what are the characteristics of an acid/base reaction?

--- how is an acid/base reaction similar to a redox reaction?

--- what are the major sources of fresco deterioration?

--- what is the main reason for the darkening of frescos and paintings?

--- give three common names for a material whose chemical composition is CaCO3

--- how does a fresco cure?

--- what are the reactions that convert limestone into quick lime and pit lime and then fresco?

( or, what is the "rock to rock" sequence?)

--- what are the chemical formulas for these pigments?

  • cinnabar, verdigris, lead white, orpiment, vermilion, viridian, chrome yellow


week 9
drying oil
gum arabic
Conceptual questions ---

--- what changes happen when an oil paint dries?

--- what changes accompanied the use of oil as a pigment binder?

--- what is the main purpose of gum arabic and honey or sugar in watercolor?

week 9-10
Conceptual questions ---

--- what is the evolution of elements and which elements were important in pigments?

--- what are the characterisitics of an ionic bond?

--- what are the characterisitics of a covalent bond?

--- what are the new elements from mid 1700-1800's?

--- what are the new pigments from mid 1700-1800's?

--- what is the story of Perkin's Purple? and how does it relate to chemistry?

--- what are some of the compounds in coal tar?

--- how does the palette of the Pre-Raphaelites compare to that of the Renaissance artists?

--- who are the colormen?

week 11
additive color mixing
subtractive mixing
white light diffraction
Conceptual questions ---

--- Which type of color mixing occurs in each case below?

(a) red + green = yellow - additive
(b) blue + yellow = green - subtractive
(c) blue + red-orange = pink - additive
(d) RGB video screens - additive
(e) Renaissance painting - subtractive
(f) pointillist painting - additive
(g) theatrical lighting for a play or a production - additive
(h) 4-color commercial printing - subtractive

--- Give examples of the following concepts:

(a) a non-spectral hue - magenta
(b) 2 metameric colors: pink ~pale orange ~pale red+pale blue+pale orange

--- Additive complementary colors add to give - white
and one example is: - blue + yellow = white
--- Subtractive complementary colors add to give - black
and one example is: - red + green = black

week 12
index of refraction
polarized light
crossed polarizers
Conceptual questions ---

--- what is the fundamental reason why diffrerent materials have different indexes if refraction?

--- give two reasons why a varnish layer produces deeper and more saturated colors

--- the test of a pigment sample with acid is positive for which pigments?

--- how can prussian blue be detected?

--- how can cobalt blue and ultramarine be distinguished?

--- how can viridian and malachite be distinguished?

--- how can lead white and zinc white be distinguished?

What pigments were in the painting? click here to see