Part I, Ancient to Renaissance [jump to part II]

For each example there are a handful of links directly to images, which open in a second window which it's best to keep at the left edge of your screen. You can also link from the building name directly to a second page focussed on just that building, with more images and links to pertinent external websites.

Some images feature a second link. In these cases, the first will go to a screen-sized image, the second to a much larger image. The number of the second link refers to the dimensions of the raw image (width x height) in pixels. Resolution and JPEG quality will vary, but are generally higher.

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00003. Oval hut, Terra Amata (Nice), France, c. 400,000 BC.

00006. Caves, Lascaux, France, c. 15,000-13,000 BC.

00010. Menhirs, Carnac, Brittany, France, c. 4250-3750 BC.

00015. Tomb, New Grange, Ireland, c. 3000-2500 BC.

00020. House and village, Skara Brae, Orkney Islands, Scotland, c. 3100-2600 BC.

00190. Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, England, c. 2750-1500 BC.

00025. Megalithic tomb, dolmen, Carnac, Brittany, France, c. 1500 BC.



00090. Neolithic wall, Jericho, Israel, c. 7000 (K: c. 7500 BC).

00095. Houses & shrines, Çatal Hüyük, Anatolia, Turkey, c. 6000 BC.

00100. City and White Temple, Uruk - Warka, Iraq, c. 3500-3000.

00110. City and Ziggurat, Ur, Iraq, c.2113-2006 BC.

00120. City, gate, and sanctuaries, Hattusas, Turkey, c. 1900-1200 BC.

00130. Citadel of Sargon II, Khorsabad, Iraq. c.742-706 BC (K: 721-705 BC).

00135. Ishtar Gate, Babylon, Iraq (Staatliche Museen, Berlin), c. 570 BC.

00140. Royal Palace, Persepolis, Iran. 518-460 BC.

00145. Palace of Shapur I, Ctesiphon, Iraq, 242-72 AD.



00030. Mastabas, Egypt, 3200 BC.

00040. Funerary complex of King Zoser, Saqqarra, Lower Egypt. c. 2750 BC (K: c. 2680 BC, third dynasty).

00050. Giza Pyramids and temples of Khufu (Cheops), Khefren (Khafre) & Mykerinus, Giza, Lower Egypt. 2570-2500 BC; Pyramid temples of Chefren (Khafre), c.2530 BC.

00055. Sphinx, Giza, Lower Egypt, c. 2530 BC.

00060. Mortuary Temples of Mentuhotep and Queen Hatshepsut, Deir-el-Bahari, Thebes, Upper Egypt. c. 2050 & c.1500 BC.

00065. Rock-cut tombs, Beni Hasan, Upper Egypt, c. 2000 BC.

00070. Thebes, site, streets, and houses. Thebes, Upper Egypt. c. 2000-1500 BC.

00073. Workers town at pyramid, El Kahun, Egypt, 1897-1878 BC.

00075. Temple complex of Amun-Mut-Khomsu, Luxor, Thebes, Upper Egypt, 14th-13th c. BC.

00077. Tell el Amarna housing, Tell el Amarna, Upper Egypt, c. 1370 (K:1379-1362 BC).

00080. Temple of Amun (K: Amon), Karnak, Thebes, Upper Egypt. c.1350-1205 BC

00085. Rock-cut temples, Abu Simbel, Nubia, Egypt, c. 1250 BC.



00150. Palace of Minos, Knossos, Crete. c.1700-1400 B.C. (K:1600 BC).

00153. City view, Mycenae, Greece, c. 1600-1200 BC.

00157. Grave circle A, Mycenae, Greece, 16th C. BC.

00170. Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, Greece. 13th C. B.C. (K:14th C. BC).

00180. Lion gate, Mycenae. c.1250 B.C.

00160. Palace and Citadel, Tiryns, Greece. c.1400-1200 B.C. (K1600-1100 BC).

00185. Palace, Pylos, Greece, 13th C. BC.



00200. Temple model, Argos (National Archaeological Museum, Athens), 8th C. BC.

00203. Temple of Artemis, Corfu, c. 600 BC.

00205. Temple of Artemis, Ephesos, c. 550 BC (K:560-550 BC).

00207. Temple of Apollo, Corinth, c. 540 BC.

00210. Siphnian Treasury, Delphi, c. 530-525 BC.

00215. Temple of Hera I (Basilica), Paestum, Italy, c. 530 BC.

00220. Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, early 5th C. BC (W: c.510-490 BC).

00225. Old Tholos, Delphi, c. 490 BC.

00230. City plan, Miletus, Turkey, after 479 BC.

00235. Sanctuary of Zeus, Olympia, c. 470-456 BC.

00240. Temple of Hera II ("Temple of Poseidon") Paestum, Italy. c 460 BC.

00250. Temple of Hephaestus, Athens. 449 - c. 430 B.C.

00253. Doric temple refinements

00255. Comparative temple plans

00257. Classical orders

00260. Acropolis, Athens. c. 400 BC.

00270. Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, c. 447-438 BC (K: c. 447-432), (Ictinus and Callicrates).

00290. Propylea, Acropolis, Athens. c.437-432 BC, (Mnesicles).

00300. Erectheum, Acropolis, Athens. c. 420 BC (K:421-405 BC).

00310. Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, c. 420 BC (K:427-424 BC)

00315. Agora, Athens, late 5th C. BC.

00320. Temple of Concord, Akragas (Agrigento), Sicily, c. 430 BC.

00325. Temple of Apollo, Bassae, c. 420-410 BC.

00330. Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi. c.4th C B.C.

00333. Tholos, Delphi, early 4th C. BC.

00335. City plan and gate, Priene, 4th C. BC (gate: 2nd C. BC)

00337. Greek houses:

00337x1. House XXXII, Priene, 4th C. BC.

00337x2. Houses, Olynthos and Athens, 5th - 4th C. BC.

00337x3. House of Comedians, Delos, Greece, 125 BC.

00340. Mausoleum, Halicarnassus, c. 353 BC.

00345. Columns of Temple of Athena Polias, Priene, c. 340 BC.

00350. Monument to Lysicrates, Athens. c.335 B.C.

00360. Theater, Epidaurus, c. 300 BC.

00365. Temple of Apollo, Didyma, Turkey, c. 300 BC

00370. Sanctuary of Asclepius, Kos, c. 300-150 BC (T:2nd C. BC)

00375. Theater, Priene, 3rd C. BC (K:late 2nd C. BC)

00380. City plan, Pergamon, Turkey, mid-3rd to mid-2nd c. BC

00385. Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey (Staatliche Museen, Berlin), c.166-156 BC (G: 175 BC).

00390. Temple of Zeus Olympius, Athens. c 170 B.C.

00400. Bouleterion, reconstruction drawing, Miletus, Turkey, c. 175 BC (K: 170 BC).

00410. Stoa of Attalos II, Agora, Athens. 2nd C. B.C.



00413. Necropolis, Cerveteri, Italy, 7th - 4th C. BC.

00416. Temple reconstruction (after Vitruvius) 6th C. BC.



00420. City plan, Rome, 4th C. BC -1st C. AD.

00423. Porta Augusta, Perugia, 2nd C. BC.

00426. Basilica, Pompeii, c. 120 BC.

00430. Temples in Forum Boarium, Rome. Late 2nd and 1st C. B.C.

00430x1. Temple of Fortuna Virilis, late 2nd C. B.C.

00430x2. Temple of Vesta, late 2nd C. B.C.

00433. Roman Orders

00436. Roman construction, arches, and vaults

00440. Amphitheater, Pompeii. 80 B.C.

00450. Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, Palestrina (Praeneste), Italy, c. 80 BC.

00470. Maison Carrée, Nimes, France, c. 20 BC.

00475. Ara Pacis, Rome, 13-9 BC.

00460. Forum Romanum, Rome, 1st C. BC-4th C. AD.

00480. Temple of the Sibyl (Vesta), Tivoli, early 1st C. BC.

00490. Theater, Orange, France, 1st C. BC.

00500. Theater of Marcellus, Rome, 11 BC.

00520. Pont du Gard, Nìmes, France, late 1st c. BC.

00530. Aqueduct, Segovia, Spain, 1st or 2nd c. AD.

00540. Sanctuary of Jupiter Heliopolitanus, Baalbek, Lebanon, early 1st-mid 3rd C. AD.

00550. Domus Aurea, Rome, 64-68 AD.

00560. Colosseum, Rome. 72-80 AD.

00570. Insula, Ostia, late 1st- 2nd C. AD.

00580. Severan Basilica and Forum, Leptis Magna, Libya, 216 AD.

00600. Pompeiian houses:

00600x1. ~ Generic remains

00600x2. ~ Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, 3rd c. BC

00600x3. ~ House of Pansa, Pompeii, 2nd C. BC

00600x4. ~ House of the Vetii, Pompeii, early 1st c. AD.

00600x5. ~ House of Menander, Pompeii, c. 70 AD (K:2nd C. BC).

00600x6. ~ House of Ara Maxima, Pompeii, 70 AD.


00610. Basilica, Pompeii, c. 120 BC.

00620. Amphitheater, Pompeii, 80 BC.

00625. City plan and views, Pompeii, 79 AD.

00630. Forum, Pompeii, 79 AD.

00635. Arch of Titus, Rome, 90 AD.

00640. Domus Augustana, Flavian Palace, Rome, c. 92 AD.

00645. Imperial Fora, Rome, c. 46 BC-117 AD.

00660. Forum of Trajan, Column of Trajan, Rome, c.106-113. AD.

00655. Basilica Ulpia, Forum of Trajan, Rome, c. 98-117.

00650. Markets of Trajan, Rome. c. 100-112 AD.

00663. Arch of Trajan, Benevento, Italy, c. 114-117 AD.

00666. City aerial plan, Timgad, Algeria, 100-117 AD.

00670. Pantheon, Rome. c. 118-128 AD (K:120-127 AD).

00675. Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, 118-134 AD.

00680. Market gate, Miletus, Turkey (Staatliche Museen, Berlin), c. 120 AD.

00685. Temple of Venus and Rome, Rome, c. 135 AD

00690. Mausoleum of Hadrian (Castel Sant' Angelo), Rome, 140 AD.

00695. Rock-cut-tomb of ed-Deir, Petra, Syria, 2nd C. AD.

00700. Temple of Fortuna Virilis, Rome, late 2nd C. AD.

00710. Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211-217 AD.

00720. Baths of Diocletian, Rome, c. 298-306 AD.

00730. Temple of Venus, Baalbek, Lebanon, 3rd C. AD.

00750. Palace of Diocletian, Split, Yugoslavia, c. 300 AD.

00760. Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius, Rome, c.307-312 AD.

00780. Arch of Constantine, Rome, 315 AD.

00740. Villa of Maximianus, Piazza Armerina, Sicily, early 4th C. AD.

00770. Basilica, Trier, Germany, early 4th C. AD.



00790. Catacombs, Rome, from 2nd C. AD.

00795. Christian community house, Dura Europos, Syria, 231 AD.

00800. Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, c. 335 AD (K:328-336).

00810. Old St. Peter's, Rome, begun c 333 AD (K: 320-330).

00820. Santa Costanza, Rome, ca. 350. AD.

00823. S. Lorenzo, Milan, c. 370 AD.

00870. Cathedral, Trier, Germany, c.380 AD (only north wall, aisle survive; rest [W:] 11th and 12th C.)

00825. St. Paul Outside the Walls, Rome, begun 386 AD (S: begun 385).

00827. Orthodox Baptistery , Ravenna, c. 400-450 AD.

00830. Santa Sabina, Rome, ca. 422-432 AD.

00835. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, c. 425 AD

00840. Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, c.432 AD.

00850. S. Stefano Rotondo, Rome, 468-483 AD.

00855. Syrian Early Christian churches:

00855x1. ~ Church, Der Turmanin, Syria, c. 480 AD.

00855x2. ~ St. Simeon Stylites, Qalat Siman, Syria, c. 470 AD.

00855x3. ~ Church, Qalb Louzeh, Syria, c. 500 AD

00855x4. ~ Basilica, Qasr-ibn-Wardan, Syria, c. 564 AD.

00860. Domes and pendentives

00865. S. Vitale, Ravenna, c. 526 AD (K:546-48).

00950. Sant'Apollinaire in Classe, Ravenna, 534-549 AD.

00960. SS. Sergius and Bacchus, Constantinople, 527-536 AD.

00980. Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, c.532-537 AD.

00990. Hosios Loukas Monastery, Phocis, Greece, 1020.

01000. S. Marco, Venice, 1063-1094.

01003. Churches (incl. Pantanassa), Mistra, Greece, c. 1300.

01005. Monastery church, Gracanica, Yugoslavia, 1321.

01007. Cathedral of St. Basil, Moscow, Russia, 1554-60 (W: 1555-60)



01010. Gatehouse (Torhalle), Lorsch, Germany, 767-774 AD (K:800).

01020. Church of St.-Riquier, Centula, France, 790-799 AD.

01030. Abbey Church, Fulda, Germany, c. 791-821 AD (destroyed 947) (K: 802-17).

01040. Palatine Chapel, Aachen, Germany, c. 796-805 (K: 796-804).

01050. Church, Germigny-des-Prés, France, c. 799-818 AD.

01055. Monastery of St. Gall, Lake Constance, Switzerland, c. 820 AD.

01060. S. Clemente, Rome, choir: 872 AD; rest of int: 12th C.

01070. St. Vitus, Benedictine abbey, Corvey, Germany, westwork, 873-85 AD.

01080. St. Michael's, Hildesheim, Germany, c. 1001-1033 AD



01083. Vault types



01086. Second Abbey Church (Cluny II), Cluny, France, 955-981 AD.

01110. St. Philibert, Tournus, France, c. 960-1120 AD.

01140. St.-Martin-du-Canigou, St.-Martin-du-Canigou, France, 1001-1026.

01130. Notre Dame, Jumièges, France, c. 1040-1067.

01120. Ste.-Foy, Conques, France, c. 1050-1120.

01150. St. Etienne, Nevers, France, 1063-97, (c.1083-97).

01160. Benedictine Abbey of Saint-Étienne, Caen , France, c. 1064-1077 (K: 1068).

01170. St.-Sernin, Toulouse, France, 1080-1120.

01180. Abbey Church of St.-Pierre (Cluny III), Cluny, France,1088-c. 1121 AD (K: 1095).

01190. Abbey Church, St.-Savin-sur-Gartempe, Poitou, France, 1095-1115.

01195. Cluniac Abbey of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1125-30.

01200. Benedictine Abbey Church of Sainte-Marie-Madeleine, Vézelay, France, c. 1104-32 (W: c. 1125).

01205. Tournai Cathedral, Tournai, Belgium, c. 1110.

01210. St. Lazare (Cathedral), Autun, c. 1120-1130.

01213. Notre-Dame-la-Grande, Poitiers, France, c. 1130-45

01460. Cistercian Abbey Church, Fontenay, France. 1130-1147 (K: 1139-47).

01450. Sens Cathedral, Sens, France. c.1130-1164.

01217. St.-Trophîme, Arles, France, 12th C.

01220. St.-Front, Périgueux, France, mid-12th C.



01260. S. Miniato al Monte, Florence, Italy, mid-11th-12th C.

01280. Pisa Cathedral group, Pisa, Italy, 1053-1272 (T, W: Cathedral: 1063-; Baptistery: 1153-1265; Campanile: 1174-1271; T: Campo Santo: 1278).

01250. Baptistery of S. Giovanni, Florence, Italy, c. 1060-1150 (K: 1334-57)

01240. St. Ambrogio, Milan, Italy, begun c. 1080.

01270. S. Michele, Pavia, Italy, c. 1100-1160.

01273. Lucca Cathedral, Lucca, Italy, begun 1143 (W: c. 1204).

01277. Monreale Cathedral, Monreale, Sicily, 1174-1182.



01290. Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, England, begun 1079 (K: 1080-90).

01300. Durham Cathedral, Durham England, begun 1093

01310. Ely Cathedral, Ely, England, 1080 to mid-13th C.

01320. Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, England, early 12th C.; choir begun 1337.


01090. Imperial Cathedral, Speyer, c. 1030-1060 (rebuilt 1082-1106).

01760. City walls, Avila, Spain, begun 1090.




01410. Gothic vaulting diagrams

01420. Comparative nave elevations



01430. St. Denis, near Paris. 1140-1144 (east & west ends); 1231-81 (nave and choir) (K: begun 1144).

01470. Notre-Dame, Paris, 1163-1250.

01480. Noyon Cathedral, Noyon, France. c.1170 (W: begun c.1150).

01490. Soissons Cathedral, Soissons, c. 1180.

01500. Cathedral, Laon, France, end of 12th C.

01510. Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France. 1194-1220

01520. Cathedral of St. Etienne, Bourges, France. 1195-c.1250.

01530. Reims Cathedral, Reims, France. begun 1211.

01550. Cathedral, Amiens, France, begun 1220.

01560. Cathedral, Beauvais, France, begun c. 1225.

01570. Ste.-Chapelle, Paris, 1241-48 (K:1243-48).

01575. St.-Urbain, Troyes, 1262.

01660. Albi Cathedral, Albi, France. begun 1276 (W: begun 1282; south porch 1519).

01700. Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France, begun c. 1277

01750. House of Jacques Coeur, Bourges. 1443-51 (W:1445-53).

01740. St. Maclou, Rouen, France c. 1500-1514.



01705. St. Elizabeth, Marburg, 1233-1283.

01710. Heiligkreuzkirche, Schwabisch Gmund, Germany, after 1351

01720. Ulm Cathedral, Ulm, Germany, 14th C.; 1877-90

01730. Lorenzkirche, Nuremberg, Germany, begun 1439.


01580. Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, England. 1174-84.

01600. Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln, England. 1192 (K: 1233).

01610. Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, England. 1220-1260 (K: 1220-58).

01630. Exeter Cathedral, Exeter, England. begun c. 1280 (W: nave begun c.1310)

01590. Wells Cathedral, Wells, England. c. 1285 (strainer arches: 1338).

01635. Harlech Castle, Gwynnedd, Wales, 1286-1290.

01640. Westminster Hall, London, 1397-99 (Herland, Hugh).

01620. Westminster Abbey, London, begun 1245 (Henry VII's chapel: 1503-c. 1512, William Vertue)

01620x1. Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster Abbey, London, 1503-c. 1512. (Vertue, William).

01650. King's College Chapel, Cambridge, England. 1508-1515.



01675. Basilica of S. Francesco, Assisi, 1228-1253.

01680. Sta. Croce, Florence, begun 1295 (T: begun 1296), (di Cambio, Arnolfo ?)

01683. Florence Cathedral (Sta. Maria del Fiore) (see also dome: 1420-36; Old Sacristy: c. 1421-28), Florence, begun 1296; nave and choir: 1357-15th C. ; campanile: 1334-60, (di Cambio, Arnolfo, later Francesco Talenti, 1343-; campanile: Giotto di Bondone, Andrea Pisano, Francesco Talenti, 1334-60).

01685. Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, 1299-c. 1320 (K: 1299-1314).

01687. Milan Cathedral, Milan, apse begun 1386.

01690. Campo and Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, Italy. first half 14th C. (G: palazzo: 1288-1309).

01693. Palazzo Davanzati, Florence, c. 1350 (K: late 14th C.)

01696. Palma Cathedral, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, begun c. 1300.



02000. Dome of the Rock (Kubbat-as-Sakhra), Jerusalem, 691-692 AD (K: 685-690).

02010. Great Mosque, Damascus, Syria, c. 706-715 AD

02020. Khirbat-al-Mafjar, Khirbat-al-Mafjar, Jordan, 739-744 AD.

02030. Palace, Mshatta, Jordan, c. 744-50 AD.

01360. Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain, begun 786. (W: interior: 961-76; K: mihrab bay: 962-66).

02040. Great Mosque, Kairawan (Qairawan), Tunisia, 826-860 AD.

02050. Masjid-i-Jami, Isfahan, Iran, 1088-89.

02060. Alhambra, Granada, Spain, 13th-14th C.

02070. Mausoleum complex of Sultan Hasan al-Nasir, Cairo, c. 1356; mausoleum 1362.

02080. Mosque of Sultan Süleyman, Constantinople, 1550-57 (Sinan)

02090. Selimiye Cami, Edirne, Turkey, 1569-1575 (Sinan).

02100. Taj Mahal, Agra, India, 1631-48.


02500. Great Friday Mosque, Djenne, Mali, 13th C.

02510. Conical Tower, Great Zimbabwe, before 1450.



03010. La Venta site, Mexico, 800-400 BC.

03020. Ceremonial Center, Teotihuacan, Mexico, 1st C. BC - 8th C. AD.

03030. Ground Drawings, Nazca Plain, Peru, 500 AD.

03040. Temple I, Tikal, Guatemala, c. 700 AD.

03050. Caracol & Castillo, Chichén Itza, Mexico, C. 1050.

03060. Great Serpent Mound, Adena, OH, c. 1070.

03070. Mounds, Cahokia, IL, 1150.

03080. Incan Masonry Wall, Cuzco, Peru, 1500

03090. Machu Picchu, Machu Picchu, Peru, c. 15th-16th C.



03300. Chinese roof types

03310. Pagodas:

00310x1. ~ Diagrams

03310x2. ~ Great Wild Goose Pagoda, Ci'en Temple, Xian, Shaanxi, China, 645-mid 8th C AD.

03310x3. ~ Foguang Si Pagoda and Temple, Wutaishan, Shaanxi, China, 1056.


03350. Forbidden City, Beijing, China, 16th-17th C.



03360. Traditional house plan

03370. Inner Shrine, Ise, Mie Prefecture, early 1st C. AD, rebuilt 1993.

03380. Horyu-ji, Nara, 7th C. AD.

03390. Byodo-in. Hoodo, Uji, Kyoto Prefecture, c.1053.



03600. Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, 2nd-1st C. BC

03610. Chaitya hall, Karli, India, 100-25 AD.

03620. Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, India, 6th C. AD.

03630. Rock-cut temples, Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram), India , 7th C. AD.

03630x1. 'Ratha' Cave Temples (solid stone):

03630x2. Shore Temple (coursed masonry):

03640. Temples, Khajuraho, India, c. 1000 AD.

03330. Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Cambodia, 12th and 13th C. AD.

03340. Temple Palace, Angkor Wat, Cambodia, 1113-50.

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[jump to part II: Post-Renaissance through Modern]

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