Japanese Architecture and Planning
(Cities 270)
Growth and Structure of Cities Program

Carola Hein
Thomas 243
 Office hours: Friday 12:30-2:30 and on appointment
Fall 2003

 

 

SYLLABUS

Aim
The built environment in
Japan does not resemble its American or European counterparts. Visitors often characterize it as visually chaotic, while recent observers praise the lively traditional neighborhoods. This course will explore characteristics of Japanese cities, their history and presence, and examine the particular cultural, political, economic, and social context of urban form in Japan. The course is aimed at a better understanding of Japanese cities and should point towards lessons in urban organization that recent movements such as the "New Urbanism" might learn.

Apart from giving an introduction to Japanese architecture and planning, the course is also designed to help students develop their analytical skills, their ability to read and write.

Requirements
This course requires active class participation and reading (20% of final grades). Students will prepare reading responses and email them to Carola Hein by Sunday evening for weeks 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 11. They will be corrected and graded. (20%) Each student will give one presentation on an assigned topic (20%).

A final paper will allow students to research an individually chosen topic related to the class. An oral presentation and final paper are required (40%). All these should be submitted in a timely fashion.

Textbooks
You should buy the required books. These books and some other major texts are also available on reserve.

 

CLASS SCHEDULE AND ASSIGNMENTS

I.   INTRODUCTION
(Explanation of syllabus and readings)

1.   Japanese Urban Life Today - Impressions and Comparisons
(Sept. 1st, 3rd )

 

II. JAPANESE URBAN SPACE IN A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

2.   Traditional Japanese Architecture, Cities and Villages I
(Sept. 8th, 10th)

Required reading:

Taniguchi, Jun'ichiro, In Praise of Shadows, Leete’s Island Books, 1977

Karan, P.P.: "The City in Japan" and Mather, Cotton, "Urban Landscapes of Japan," in Karan, P.P.; Stapleton, Kristin, The Japanese City, The University Press of Kentucky, Kentucky, 1998, p. 12-39; p. 40-55

Further references:

Inaji, Toshirô, The Garden as Architecture, Kodansha International, Tokyo, New York, London, 1998.

Jinnai, Hidenobu, Tokyo, A Spatial Anthropology, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1995.

Steinhardt, Nancy, Chinese Imperial City Planning, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 1990.

Schinz, Alfred, The Magic Square, Menges, Stuttgart, London, 1996.

Assignment I for Week II:

  1. Read and discuss (group work is encouraged  - up to four students):
    • Ishida, Yorifusa, "Japanese Equivalents for French 'Quartier' in Professional and Popular Languages," in: Kogakuin Daigaku Kenkyûjohô  n 81, p. 213-220
    • Berque, Augustin, Japan, Nature, Artifice and Japanese Culture, Pilkington Press, 1997, p. 15-46
  2. Discuss meaning of words such as metropolis, city, neighborhood, community, suburb, plaza, street in the Western (and Japanese) context. (Choose one or two terms)
  3. Prepare 2-3 page summary of your definitions, present and discuss

3.   Traditional Japanese Architecture, Cities and Villages II
(Sept. 15th, 17th)

Required reading:

Coaldrake, William H., Architecture and Authority in Japan, Routledge Japanese Studies Series, London 1996:

Ch. 3: "Great Halls of Religion and State," p. 52-80;

Ch. 4: "Heian Palaces and Kamakura Temples," p. 81-103;

Ch. 5: "Castles." p. 104-137

 

Further references:

Bodard-Bailey, Beatrice, “Urbanisation and the Nature of the Tokugawa Hegemony” in Fiévé, Nicolas; Waley, Paul (Eds.) Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo, Curzon, (2003), p. 100-128

 

4.   Views of Japan
(Sept. 22nd, 24th)

Required reading:

Smith II, Henry D.  Hiroshige: One Hundred Famous Views of Edo. New York: George Braziller/The Brooklyn Museum, 1986, p. 9-15

Lewis, Martin; Wigen, Kären, The Myth of Continents, A Critique of Metageography, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1997, p. 47-103

Barthes, Roland, Empire of Signs, Hill and Wang, 1982

Further references:

Morse, Edward, Japanese Homes and their Surroundings, Dover Publications, New York, 1961 (original: 1886) (Intro and - 14, 45-77, 108-183, 234-272)

Friedman, Mildred, Tokyo: Form and Spirit, Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, New York, Abrams, 1986.

Coaldrake, William H., “Metaphors of the Metropolis. Architectural and Artistic Representations of the Identity of Edo,” in Fiévé, Nicolas; Waley, Paul (Eds.) Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo, Curzon, (2003), p. 129-159

5.   The Modernization of Japan in the Meiji Era and the Introduction of Western Style Architecture and Urban Planning
(Sept. 29th, Oct. 1st)

Required reading:

Okamoto, Satoshi, "Destruction and Reconstruction of Ginza town" in Fukui, Norihiko; Jinnai, Hidenobu, Destruction and Rebirth of Urban Environment, Sagami Shobo, p. 51-84

Stewart, David B., The Making of a Modern Japanese Architecture, 1868 to the present, Kodansha International, Tokyo and New York, 1987, p. 13-62

Stipe, Margo, “Wright and Japan” in: Alofsin, Anthony, Frank Lloyd Wright, Europe and Beyond, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1999, p. 24-44

 

Assignment II for Week V (group work is encouraged – up to four students):

  1. Find maps or drawings of a Japanese city (or city part) and a foreign city (or city part) from the same period.
  2. Compare and discuss your findings in writing.

 

6.   Taisho/Showa Period: Japan as a World Power - From Tange Via Maki to Ando and Beyond
(Oct. 6th, 8th)

Required reading:

Yatsuka, Hajime, "Internationalism Versus Regionalism," in: Koshalek, Richard; Smith, Elizabeth A.T., At the End of the Century; One Hundred Years of Architecture, Moca, Los Angeles, 1998, p. 186-198

Wendelken, Cherie, “Aesthetics and Reconstruction: Japanese architectural culture in the 1950s,” in Hein, Carola: Dieffendorf, Jeffrey M.; Ishida Yorifusa (eds.) Rebuilding Urban Japan After 1945, Palgrave/Macmillan, London, 2003, p. 237-267

Boyd, Robin, New Directions in Japanese Architecture, George Braziller, New York, 1968, p. 7-33

Maki, "Notes on Collective Form," in: Fumihiko Maki: buildings and projects, New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 1997 p. 206-217

Banham, Reyner; Suzuki, Hiroyuki, Contemporary Japanese Architecture, New York, Rizzoli, 1985, p. 5-39

Krstic, Vladimir, "Liquid Constructions, Tokyo and the End of Space," in: Bognar, Botond, Tokyo, World Cities Series, John Wiley & Sons, 1997, p. 38-39

 

Further references:

Krier, Alex, "Maki's Quarter of a Century at Hillside Terrace," in: Fumihiko Maki: buildings and projects, New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 1997 p. 236-255

 

NO CLASS on Oct. 13th, 15th  (Fall Break)

7.   Presentation of attributed topics, hand-out of outline
(Oct. 20th, 22nd)

(For example: Japanese film, sports, food, literature, anime, sci-fi (cyber-punk) art, photography, theater and dance, transportation, shopping, housing, working in Japanese cities, geomancy, women in Japan, world exhibitions, etc.)

You may choose a topic that is related to your final paper.



III   CASE STUDIES

8. Urban Issues in the Japanese colonies, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe 1:
Reconstruction, Land Use, Social Structures

(Oct. 27th)

Required reading:

Tucker David, “Learning from Dairen, Learning from Shinkyô: Japanese Colonial City Planning and Postwar Reconstruction,” in Hein, Carola: Dieffendorf, Jeffrey M.; Ishida Yorifusa (eds.) Rebuilding Urban Japan After 1945, Palgrave/Macmillan, London, 2003, p. 193-236

 

Hein, Carola, "Visionary Plans and Planners," in Fiévé, Nicolas; Waley, Paul (Eds.) Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo, Curzon, (2003), p. 349-346

Callies, David, "Urban Land Use and Control in the Japanese City: A Case Study of Hiroshima, Osaka, and Kyoto," in: Karan, P.P.; Stapleton, Kristin, The Japanese City, The University Press of Kentucky, Kentucky, 1998 p. 134-155

 

Fujita, Kuniko; Hill, Richard Child, "Together and Equal: Place Stratification in Osaka," in: Karan, P.P.; Stapleton, Kristin, The Japanese City, The University Press of Kentucky, Kentucky, 1998, p. 106-133

 

Further references:

Sugimoto, Toshimasa, "Atomic Bombing and Restoration of Hiroshima," in: Fukui, Norihiko; Jinnai, Hidenobu, Destruction and Rebirth of Urban Environment, Sagami Shobo, p. 17-38

 

SPECIAL MEETING

(Oct. 29th)

Carola Hein, Colloquium in Visual Culture “Rebuilding Hiroshima after World War II” (12:30-1:45, Thomas 110)

 

Required reading:

Hein, Carola, "Hiroshima. The atomic bomb and Kenzo Tange‘s Hiroshima Peace Center" in: Joan Ockman (ed.) Out of Ground Zero. Case Studies in Urban Reinvention Temple Hoyne Buell Center for the Study of American Architecture Columbia University, New York; Prestel, München, 2000, p. 62-83

 

9. Urban Issues in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe 2:
 Neighborhood Planning, Community Design, Recent Trends in Architecture

(Nov. 3rd, 5th)

Required reading:

 (2001) "Toshikeikaku and Machizukuri in Japanese Urban Planning - the Reconstruction of Inner City Neighborhoods in Kobe", in: Jahrbuch des DIJ (Deutsches Institut für Japanstudien) 13, p. 221-252

Hladik Murielle, “Time Perception, or the Ineluctable Aging of Material in Architecture,” in Fiévé, Nicolas; Waley, Paul (Eds.) Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo, Curzon, (2003), p. 257-279

Henrichsen, Christoph “Historical outline of conservation legislation in Japan” Enders, Siegfried, “Organization and management of conservation projects in Japan” Gutschow, Niels, “Quest for the original state – reconstruction and restoration to an earlier state in Japanese conservation” all in:

Enders, Siegfried; Gutschow, Niels, Hozon: Architectural and Urban Conservation in Japan, Edition Axel Menges, 1998, p. 12-16, p. 22-24, p. 28-59

 

 

 

10. Planning and Architecture in Tokyo I
(Nov. 10th, 12th)

Required reading:

Start: Bestor, Theodore, Neighborhood Tokyo, Stanford University Press, Stanford,     California, 1989

(Or: Cybriwsky, Roman, Tokyo, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, etc. 1998.)

 

Preliminary Outline of Final Paper due: Nov. 13th

 

11. Tokyo and the Regions - Decentralization Politics
(Nov. 17th, 19th)

Required reading:

Finish: Bestor, Theodore, Neighborhood Tokyo, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 1989

(Or: Cybriwsky, Roman, Tokyo, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, etc. 1998.)

Rimmer, Peter J., "Reshaping Western Pacific Rim Cities," in: Fujita, Kuniko; Hill, Richard Child, Japanese Cities in the World Economy, Temple University Press, 1993, p. 257-279

 

Further references:

Ashihara Yoshinobu, The Hidden Order: Tokyo through the Twentieth Century, Kodansha International, Tokyo, New York, 1989.

 

12. Japan - A Model for the Future? - Presentation of Papers

(Nov. 24th, 26th)

13. Presentation of Papers
(Dec. 1st, 3rd)

14. Presentation of Papers
(Dec. 8th, 10th)


Final paper due: December 10th

 

READING AND RESERVE LIST

Required reading:
(blackboard, reserve and bookshop)

Especially recommended as background reading:

Reischauer, Edwin O.; Craig, Albert M.

Japan, Tradition and Transformation, (revised edition)

Houghton Mifflin Company, USA, 1989

 

 

Recommended for background reading and reference: (reserve)

Alofsin, Anthony,

Frank Lloyd Wright, Europe and Beyond

University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1999

Banham, Reyner; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

Contemporary Japanese Architecture

New York, Rizzoli, 1985

Barthes, Roland

Empire of Signs

Hill and Wang, 1982

Befu, Harumi: Eades, J. (eds)

Globalization and Social Change in Japan

Trans Pacific Press, 2000

Bestor, Theodore

Neighborhood Tokyo

Stanford University Press, Stanford California, 1989

Bognar, Botond

Tokyo

World Cities Series

John Wiley & Sons, 1997

Boyd, Robin

New Directions in Japanese Architecture

George Braziller, New York, 1968

Coaldrake, William H.

Architecture and Authority in Japan

Routledge Japanese Studies Series, London 1996

 

Cobbing, Andrew

The Japanese Discovery of Victorian Britain, Early Travel Encounters in the Far West

Japan Library, Curzon Press, Surrey, 1998

Drexler, Arthur

The Architecture of Japan

The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1955

Eades, J.S.; Gill, Tom, Befu, Harumi

Globalization and Social Change in Contemporary Japan

Trans Pacific Press, Melbourne, 2000

Enders, Siegfried; Gutschow, Niels

Hozon: Architectural and Urban Conservation in Japan

Edition Axel Menges, Stuttgart, London,1998

Finn, Dallas

Meiji Revisited, The Sites of Victorian Japan

Weatherhill, New York, Tokyo, 1995

Fiévé, Nicolas; Waley, Paul (Ed.)

Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo

Curzon, London, 2003

Fowler, Edward

San'ya Blues, Laboring Life in Contemporary Tokyo

Cornell University Press, Cornell, 1996

Friedman, Mildred

Tokyo: Form and Spirit

Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, New York, Abrams, 1986

Fujimori, Terunobu; Wan, Tan

A Comprehensive Study of East Asian Architecture and Urban Planning: 1840-1945

Chikumashobô, Tokyo, 1996

Fujita, Kuniko; Hill, Richard Child

Japanese Cities in the World Economy

Temple University Press, 1993

Fukui, Norihiko; Jinnai, Hidenobu (Ed.)

Destruction and Rebirth of Urban Environment

Sagami Shobo, 2000

Fumihiko Maki: buildings and projects

New York, Princeton Architectural Press, 1997

Greenfeld, Karl Taro

Speed Tribes. Days and Nights with Japan’s Next Generation

Harper Perennial, New York, 1995

Hein, Carola

"Politieposten In Tokio/Police Stations in Tokyo"

Archis 8/96

Hein, Carola

"Prestige en vermaak, Grands projets in Japan," "Prestige and diversion, Grand projects in Japan"

Archis 2/98

Hein, Carola

"Urban Planning Versus Community Building"

Archis 5/99

Hein, Carola

"Hiroshima. The atomic bomb and Kenzo Tange‘s Hiroshima Peace Center" in: Joan Ockman (ed.) Out of Ground Zero. Case Studies in Urban Reinvention Temple Hoyne Buell Center for the Study of American Architecture Columbia University, New York; Prestel, München, 2000, p. 62-83

Hein, Carola: Dieffendorf, Jeffrey M.; Ishida Yorifusa (eds.)

Rebuilding Urban Japan After 1945

Palgrave/Macmillan, London, 2003Hein, Rebuilding Urban Japan

Inaji, Toshirô

The Garden as Architecture

Kodansha International, Tokyo, New York, London, 1998

Jinnai, Hidenobu

Tokyo, A Spatial Anthropology

University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1995

Karan, P.P.; Stapleton, Kristin

The Japanese City

The University Press of Kentucky, Kentucky, 1998

Knabe, Christopher; Noennig, Joerg Rainer

Shaking the Foundations. Japanese Architects in Dialogue

Prestel, München, London, New York, 1999

 

Koshalek, Richard; Smith, Elizabeth A.T.

At the End of the Century; One Hundred Years of Architecture

Moca, Los Angeles, 1998

Lewis, Martin; Wigen, Kären

The Myth of Continents, A Critique of Metageography

University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1997

Metzger-Court, Sarah; Pascha, Werner (Eds.)

Japan's Socio-Economic Evolution: Continuity and Change

Japan Library, Curzon Press, Surrey, 1996

Morse, Edward

Japanese Homes and their Surroundings

Dover Publications, New York, 1961 (original: 1886)

Nish, Ian

The Iwakura Mission in America and Europe, A New Assessment

Japan Library, Curzon Press, Surrey, 1998

Nisihyama, Matsunosuke

Edo Culture. Daily Life and Diversions in Urban Japan, 1600-1868

University of Hawai’i Press, Honolulu, 1997

Reynolds, Jonathan M.

Maekawa Kunio and the Emergence of Japanese Modernist Architecture

University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 2001

Ross, Michael Franklin

Beyond Metabolism: The New Japanese Architecture

McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1978

Sassen, Saskia

The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo

Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1991

Schinz, Alfred

The Magic Square

Menges, Stuttgart, London, 1996

Seidensticker, Edward

Low City, High City

Harvard University Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1991

 

 

 

Seidensticker, Edward

Tokyo Rising

Charles E. Tuttle Company, Tokyo, 1991

Shapira, Philip; Masser, Ian; Edgington, David W.

Planning for Cities and Regions in Japan

Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, 1994

Shelton, Barrie

Learning from the Japanese City

E & FN Spon, 1999

Smith II, Henry D.

Hiroshige: One Hundred Famous Views of Edo

New York: George Braziller/The Brooklyn Museum, 1986

Steinhardt, Nancy

Chinese Imperial City Planning

Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990

Stewart, David B.

The Making Of A Modern Japanese Architecture, 1868 To The Present

Kodansha International, Tokyo and New York, 1987

Taniguchi, Jun'ichiro

In Praise of Shadows

Leete’s Island Books, 1977

Taut, Bruno

Cities and People of Japan

1936

"Tokyo - Hope and Recovery; Urban Civilization and Environment"

Process: Architecture n. 129

Yamashita Kazumasa

Japanese Maps of the Edo Period

Kashiwashobo, Tokyo 1998

 

Vlastos, Stephen (ed.)

Mirror of Modernity. Invented Traditions of Modern Japan

University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1998

 

Yoneyama, Lisa

Hiroshima Traces. Time, Space, and the Dialectics of Memory

University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1999