PHILA RDGS I

Broad Street, Penn Square and the Park. Philadelphia: Jno. Penington & Son, 1871. [as]

o This is a short pamphlet (about 16 pages long) in which the author—I have not been able to uncover his name—extrapolates on the problems of city planning in Philadelphia. Mainly focusing on Broad Street, Penn Square and surrounding areas, the author compares what he feels is the boring, undistinguished rectangular grid of the city to the majesty and splendor of Paris. He is particularly fond of the parks and tree-lined avenues of Paris and recommends monuments, spaces of recreation and public squares for the city. The period the pamphlet was written is notable as the author makes several references to the upcoming centennial of the nation and the need to commemorate the event with permanent grand architecture.

Crawford, Andrew Wright. "City Planning and Philadelphia Parks (in Typical Parks, National, State, County, and City." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 25.2 (1910): 71-80. [awd]

Frame: Subject, Boundaries, Approach
Andrew Wright begins his article by addressing the pessimistic attitude in America in regards to cities and their governments. He goes on to review the role that municipal, and even state and federal (but to a lesser extent) governments play in our lives. Wright then comments on the relationship a city has with its streets. This is crucial, he says, as for a city to be successful; it must acknowledge the convenience and inexpensive travel it necessitates. He even goes as far as to speculate that riverfronts will be the next big development in America. Overall, Wright's subject, while obscure at first, develops into a review of what makes a city's park system successful. These points of success are compared to the development of Philadelphia's parks and their correspondence to the city's plan. By clearly defining the necessary elements of a good plan for parks within a city, and limiting the subject matter to Philadelphi, Wright solidly delivers his point of view.

Point: Motivation, Argument, Purpose
Wright's article declares the need to induce a pro-active attitude, one in which Americans will effectively change the legislation that shapes their land and homes. His article is a review of what makes a park system successful, and he cites Philadelphia as a prime example.

Wright argues that parks should be planned not only based on the City Beautiful plan, but also the City Healthful, and for convenience. In this manner, Philadelphia has succeeded as there is a fluid coordination between the city streets and parks. This may be credited to the 1888 formation of the City Parks Association- an association precocious for its time, especially in its publishing of a report on American Park Systems. By 1907, a comprehensive park system was published, and in 1909 the plan was formally adopted by the city. As a result, 36 city squares, 19 small triangular green spots, and 11 large parks have been formed. The plan does not forecast the system of the streets, but it does not interfere with them. According to Wright, this is a successful stance as it allows for and acknowledges the sometimes unclear evolution of a city plan. The plan is forgiving.

The plan's success has been further augmented through the preservation of places of historic interest, a plan for a well-considered parkway, and well-thought placement of buildings, always to be reviewed by architects. Additionally, the plan involves communication between surrounding counties, to ensure the use and therefore longevity of its parks. Wright concludes that the best way for a city to thrive, is to allow for planning but also flexibility- realize that cities change and be prepared to make changes when necessary. And for this reason, Philadelphia's park system is successful. Overall, Wright' purpose of acknowledging the need for a city plan to incorporate all aspects of life as seen through Philadelphia's park system is clear, concise, and more importantly, very accurate.

Eberlein, Harold D. "The Penn Mutual Building." Architectural Record v. 39 (Feb. 1916): 122-131. [jb]

Eberlein's essay focuses on the Penn Mutual Building, the home office of a life insurance company located at Sixth and Walnut Streets in Philadelphia. Eberlein discusses the objectives of the architect, Edgar V. Seeler, who designed the building in a conservative manner to reflect its function and to keep the building consistent stylistically with structures in neighboring areas, including Independence Square. Architectural drawings, floor plans, and photographs enhance the essay.

LEWIS, John Frederick. "The Redemption of the Lower Schuylkill: The River as It
Was, the River as It Is, the River as It Should Be." Philadelphia Parks
Association: Philadelphia, PA, 1924. [pfj]

A) The book is a survey of the appearance and use of land surrounding the
Schuylkill River (near Philadelphia). Using descriptions, etchings, and
photographs, Lewis depicts the environment around the river as it was
(particularly in the early to mid 1800s), how it exists in 1924, and how (he
thinks) it should appear and be used in the future. His aim is to convince the
audience that to develop the land surrounding the river and to clean the river
itself for the betterment of Philadelphians.
B) This source gives a firsthand, personal view of the state of the river and
how it relates to Philadelphia at the time, both on a city and global scale (in
contrast to cities such as London and New York City). It gives particular
insight into the growing awareness of city health being affected by water
qualtiy and environmental concerns in general, and it sights specific
improvements to be made to the riverfront. It could also serve as an important
visual comparative tool using the photos included.

Temple, E. B., Assistant Chief of Engineering, Pennsylvania Railroad "Address of Philadelphia's New Passenger Terminal." Nov. 16, 1926. [ac]

November 16, 1926, the Chief of Engineering for the Pennsylvania Railroad spoke to the public about the interest for improvements of the passenger terminal at the Philadelphia Railroad Station. He addressed the general features of the plan; the construction of the low-level tracks, high passenger platforms, the use of electric locomotives, implementing "through" tracks, etc. Temple described the station building including its architectural treatment of Corinthian columns of impressive proportions and its strategic location in Philadelphia. He spoke of the grand concourse and waiting room that would relate to Union Station in Chicago. Temple's argument stated that the new terminal will improve the city by cleaning up the stock yards, diffusing the traffic, adding a new highway, increasing taxes and having the ability to handle increasing capacities of travelers. This will all benefit the greater good of the city.

Kimball, Marie G. "The Revival of the Colonial: Philadelphia Restores its Old Houses on the Schuylkill." Architectural Record v. 62 (July 1927): 1-17. [jb]

Kimball writes about seven buildings located in Fairmount Park on the banks of the Schuylkill River: William Penn House, Cedar Grove, Belmont, Rawle Mansion, Woodford, Mt. Pleasant, and Solitude. Kimball acknowledges the growing interest in colonial decorative arts and architecture in the US and suggests that the Fairmount Park houses reflect Philadelphia's strengths in these areas. The history, architecture, building materials, and interior furnishings of the seven houses are described in great detail and illustrated by photographs and architectural plans.

Eberlein, Harold. "The Fairmount Waterworks - Philadelphia." The Architectural Record 62.1 (Jul. 1927): 57 – 67. [js]

Frame: This critical article concentrates on the design history of the Waterworks, its chief architects/ engineers and the layout and architectural style of the buildings. Beyond a brief history of the site Eberlein focuses on architectural criticism, largely lauding the original buildings and questioning changes brought about in the current day. The article is illustrated with black and white photos and plans or measured drawings of architectural elements.
Focus (Point): Written at a critical time when the when the adjacent Philadelphia Museum of Art was under construction and the Waterworks building housed a public aquarium, the article looks at: 1) the contribution of the Waterworks to early American civic architecture and 2) the fate of the buildings and site as they undergo adaptive reuse and become visually subordinate to the new structure (museum) crowning on the banks above.


1945 on:

Lingenbach, William E.: "Old Philadelphia: Redevelopment and
Conservation", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol.
93, No. 2 (May 16, 1949), Pp. 179-207 [as]

This article examines plans for showcasing and interpreting Independence
Hall and other colonial buildings around it. It looks at the act of
congress which established Independence Historical Park, and proposes
other improvements to the area. Cited are the legislation itseelf,
plans by the Fairmount Park Commission, historic illustrations, and
letters from various periods showing attitudes about the area.

The article makes specific suggestions regarding how the area should be
redeveloped, offers judgements of the value of buildings in the area,
and acknowledges the lack of information about certain historic
buildings in the area.

Lingelbach, William E. "Old Philadelphia: Redevelopment and Conservation." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 93, No. 2, Studies of Historical Documents in the Library of the American Philosophical Society (May 16, 1949): 179-207. [ac]

Lingelbach states in his article that Old Philadelphia is experiencing an "awakening of civic interest," in which there are ample opportunities and certain responsibilities of the citizens for Independence Square. He describes the American Philosophical Society and many of the societies that it became the 'mother' for, including Historical Society of Pennsylvania. These societies held key roles in the development and restoration of Old Philadelphia. Lingelbach gives attention to many of the buildings and areas, including Independence Hall, Franklin Court, The First National Bank, Philosophical Hall and many more that have great historical value. He describes the history of the buildings, their style, their owners, and their restoration. For example, Lingelbach describes Philosophical Hall and its need to be restored and the need to enlarge the library. Philosophical Hall had gone through many changes, with the addition of a third floor and then the removal of it with remodeling done to the interior. He argues for the restoration of Old Philadelphia, as he states the United States was created in Philadelphia it should be cherished.

Lippincott, Horace Mather, Introduction. Quaker Meeting Houses and a Little Humor. Jenkintown: Old York Road Publishing Company, 1952. 5-25. [cr]

FRAME - Faith: Lippincott proposes that the ideals of the Quaker belief system are reflected in the continuity of its architecture. In this book, he records the history and architecture of the Philadelphia area’s Quaker Meeting Houses.
POINT: In 18th Century Philadelphia, the aristocracy was comprised primarily of the Quakers and Episcopalians. Their thrift, modesty and plainness of language and dress marked the Quakers as unusual in contrast to the ostentatious displays of wealth common amongst other groups. That same thrift enabled their ultimate prosperity and with that prosperity came the temptations of wealth and loss of membership among the Quaker ranks in the Philadelphia area. In spite of the changing fortunes of the group’s ranks, the Quaker philosophy of simplicity and humility is reflected in the architecture of their Meeting Houses.

Smith, Robert C. (1951). Two Centuries of Philadelphia Architecture 1700-1900. Transactions
of the American Philosophical Society
, 43(1), 289-303. [da]

As implied by the title, this article is largely a survey of the history of architecture in
Philadelphia from 1700 to 1900. Smith introduces this topic by noting that, at the time in which
this article was written, Philadelphia's buildings commonly were considered "mean, dull, and
monotonous." However, he strongly disagrees with this notion, stating that Philadelphia "was a
center of constant innovation in its first two centuries." At the time Smith was a professor of Art
History at the University of Pennsylvania, thus he would have been familiar with the city's
buildings, and he may have felt a need to extol the architectural virtues of his home city.
When listing notable Philadelphia buildings of the eighteenth century Smith describes
architectural styles that generally remained local, though he does point out that the first instance
of a fully realized Palladian interior is found in Christ Church. Post Revolutionary War, he feels
that Philadelphia does not receive its due as a center of Neo-Classicism because many of the
buildings of that time have been destroyed. It is during the Greek Revival that Smith claims
Philadelphia took a leadership role, noting that leading Architects of that period lived, worked,
and constructed buildings in Philadelphia. From that period to the modern movement's pioneer,
Frank Furness, Smith contends that Philadelphia was at the forefront of architectural
development.

Though the title of this article implies that it will be simply a survey, from the outset the
claim is made that Philadelphia was a leader in American architecture. Such a claim requires
comparisons to the architecture of other cities, and such comparisons are not given. PerhapsSmith assumes that his audience is familiar with architectural history and that such information
is unnecessary; still, he should support his contention with references to other cities' buildings
and how they were influenced by Philadelphia's architecture. As it is written, Smith only
presents half of his argument, and he leaves the proof of his argument to further research or
knowledge on the part of the reader.

Smith, Robert C.: "Two Centuries of Philadelphia Architecture,
1700-1900", Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New
Ser., Vol. 43 No. 1 (1953) Pp. 289-303 [as]

This article proposes that there is no inclusive writing on the history
of Philadelphia architecture and attempts to outline that history. It
contends that Philadelphia is not the "architectural backwater" that
some would believe, and outlines the history of architectural innovation
in Philadelphia.

The main sources are photographs, both from the period of the article
and from previous periods. Older buildings are documented through
paintings, drawings, and commentary.

Robert C. Smith, "Two Centuries of Philadelphia Architecture 1700-1900"
Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 43, No. 1 (1953) [cc]

Frame: A very explicit title for its content, the article traces the architectural traditions in Philadelphia over two centuries. Philadelphia has been a land of bold expressions in terms of buildings since its inception in 1682 by Thomas Holmes on the grid iron plan, which was seldom tried up to this time in 1690.The author builds up a series of illustrative descriptions on the continuous process of evolution and change in the architecture in Philadelphia with respect to influences from politics, immigrants of different nationalities, social and cultural issues and economy. The various forms of buildings are explained as they entered the family of architectural elements in Philadelphia. Short descriptions on architects are also provided to elaborate the discussions. The history of styles is illustrated from Baroque as a flavor of early Philadelphia architecture to regional influences from Scandinavian colonists before the coming of the English and the German settlers. Parallel to the main commercial architecture, the author builds up a description of the vernacular expression too. He also critically describes the various successful and unsuccessful attempts to reproduce the classical orders and English Palladian elements. The description of Italian Baroque and French Rococo style are also explained with time period till the author reaches an era of Robert Smith, whom he calls as Philadelphia's only real architectural personality in the colonial period. Building up a fascinating imagery of the battle between conservatism and progress in Philadelphia's architecture the author argues that the beginning of the 19th century was the great age of Philadelphia's architecture. He calls Frank Furness as Philadelphia's greatest architect of the late 19th century, calling him as the harbinger of innovation and progress with his new materials and design. And that by 1900 Furness's style lost its early vigour and there was no one to carry on his tradition. Clearly the author has a deep understanding of the process of development of present day Philadelphia architecture. He describes the personalities and the social changes of the Philadelphia, very well, supports his descriptions with illustrations and also builds up a succession of architectural changes from classical to modern architecture till the conception of first skyscraper in Philadelphia in 1849. He also describes the revival of various classical architectural styles that took place simultaneously.

Point: The idea behind choosing this reading is that it provides a captivating discussion of evolution and development of architectural styles since the inception of Philadelphia. The basic approach of this article is very analytical and illustrative with the use of historical photographs discussed in the write up. It had been quite fascinating to read the realms and bounds in which the architectural expression of Philadelphia emerged. The content reads as an interesting story of growth of the city to what is present day Philadelphia. It answers the evidences of co existence of various styles of buildings prevalent with respect to various social developments in Philadelphia.

Johnston, Norman B. "Pioneers in Criminology. V. John Haviland (1792-1852)." The
Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science
45, no. 5 (1955):509-519. [ew]

Johnston critiques the originality, influence and impact of Haviland's design
for the Eastern State Penitentiary. The author discusses the background of John
Haviland and where he could have learned about the radial plan design. He then
discusses Haviland's actual design plan for the prison and its influence, which
was much greater in Europe and other parts of the world than in America. He
concludes that Haviland's greatest influence to penology was his high standards
of construction, which were based on his awareness of what was necessary for the
prison that was desired.

William John Murtagh, "The Philadelphia Row House," The Journal of
the Society of Architectural Historians
16, No. 4 (1957): 8. [gg]

Murtagh's discussion on the Philadelphia row house includes the
history of the British counterpart as well as the many diverse
deviations that developed in Philadelphia.
Mostly likely his motivation for writing the article was to track the
development the Philadelphia row house and highlight the unsurpassed
tradition of row house construction still apparent in the city.

Murtagh, William John. "The Philadelphia Row House". The Journal Society of Architectural Historians Vol. 16, No. 4 (Dec., 1957): 8-13. [as]

o This is a very thorough architectural study of the history and construction of row houses in Philadellphia. Murtagh explores what he calls “Philadelphia’s great tradition of contiguous building that has never been definitively studied”. He traces how different traditionally English construction types and American techniques and technological developments to create a house type that is uniquely Philadelphian.

Murtagh, William John. "The Philadelphia Row House." The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Volume 16, No. 4 (1957): Pages 8-13. [abc]

The article provided a basic history and classifications of Philadelphia row houses. The author categorized them into four basic styles; the Bandbox house, the London house, the City house, and the Townhouse. He also briefly described the evolution of each style and described the basic floor plans of each. He noted that row houses were a traditional building method carried over from England The Townhouse style is the most numerable and common style of row house in Philadelphia. This reading was essential in understanding the prominent building methods of Philadelphia and provided useful base knowledge.

William John Murtagh, "The Philadelphia Row House", Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians Vol. 16, No.4 (December, 1957), pp. 8-13. [pf]

William John Murtagh contends that Philadelphia's Row Houses "constitut[e] the outstanding architectural feature of the area" (8). Noting that Philadelphia's row houses were first designed and constructed similarly to those in London, the author examines the four types of early urban house row house plans, including: the Bandbox House; the London House; the City House; and the Town House. Each is described in some detail. Examples of floor plans are given, and where available, pictures of row house types are provided.

Murtagh notes that Philadelphia's row houses have "never been definitively studied" (8). He believes early Philadelphia row houses are a clever and sophisticated response to narrow building sites, and wishes to draw scholarly attention to what he believes to be an under-examined -- and perhaps undervalued ­ type of building.

Division Of Land Planning, comp. "Market East Plaza." Philadelphia, PA:
Philadelphia Planning Commission, 1958. 1-14. [nk]

This book is a published version of the 1958 redevelopment proposal for
Market East Plaza. The approach taken by the commission was straight forward
and direct. The proposal is laid out using headings with bulleted supporting
information. Within the proposal are artist renderings, transportation layouts
and data about anticipated traffic flow and real estate use. The main point of
the publishing was to create public discourse

Focused on a solution to Center City's traffic problems and increasing economic
development.

Massey, James C. "The Provident Trust Buildings, 1879-1897." The Journal of the Society
of Architectural Historians
19.2 (1960): 79-81. [lrh]

Nelson, Lee H. "White, Furness, McNally and The Capital National Bank of Salem,
Oregon." The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 19.2 (1960):
57-61. [lrh]

The first of these two articles expresses remorse over the 1959 demolition of Furness' "masterpiece", the Provident Life and Trust Co. Bank. Massey states that, despite all its criticism, this structure stood as a one the most innovative and striking buildings in the city of Philadelphia for some eighty years. As further testament to Furness' creative genius, Nelson writes about the Capital National Bank in Salem, Oregon, as an attempted replica of the National Bank of the Republic, also erected in Philadelphia. Although this "charming little building" has been associated with architect Stanford White, it is actually imitates the work of Furness, ripped off by C. S. McNally.

Weisman, Winston: "Philadelphia Functionalism and Sullivan", The
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians
, Vol. 20, No. 1,
(Mar., 1961), Pp. 3-19 [as]

This piece speculates on whether Philadlephia buildings were an
influence od Louis Sullivan. It asks whether midwestern practice,
including the Chicago school may have found its roots in Philadelphia,
and whether Philadelphia's architecture really did come to a dead end as
some would have it.

The main sources are photographs of Philadlephia. These are augmented
by drawings from "Raes Directory". The author exmimes Sullivan's own
writings as well as those of other scholars to test his thesis. He also
cites newspapers in an investigation of what attitudes may have been to
various Philadelpia buildings at the time they were erected.

Weisman, Winston. "Philadelphia Functionalism and Sullivan" in The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, vol. 20, no. 1 (March 1961) p. 3-19 [tsd]

The focus of this article has three central ideas; the explanation of verticality and structure in the facades of commercial buildings in Philadelphia, how do the previously exemplified structures relate to Sullivan and functionalism of Philadelphia, and lastly, the reappraising of credit to architects that came before Sullivan in advancing the idea organic, pure functionalism in commercial buildings.

Weisman has presented his theory that architects such as William L. Johnston, S. D. Button, J. C. Hoxie, and others helped compose, and perhaps inspire, the modern architectural make-up of Philadelphia during the mid-nineteenth century. Credit has historically been given to Sullivan for being the innovator of functional, modern architecture in Philadelphia. Yet it is Weisman’s argument which points to the Jayne Building (1850), the Barcroft Store (1852), and others that exemplifies the development of tall, vertical and structurally emphasized buildings as a precursor to Sullivan’s designs. Though the style of these examples was not unique to Philadelphia, the numerous amount of buildings constructed with the elements was. In conclusion, Weisman suggests that instead of labeling Sullivan as the starting point for these design elements, perhaps he should be regarded as an architect who understood the challenges and desires of the Philadelphia cityscape.

Weisman, Winston. "Philadelphia Functionalism and Sullivan." The Journal of the
Society of Architectural Historians
20, no. 1(1961):3-19. [ew]

In this article, Weisman wants to determine if Sullivan was influenced by the
work and design theories of mid 19th century Philadelphia architects. He
compares the burgeoning ideas of functionalism of 1850's Philadelphia architects
with those of Sullivan at the end of that century. He also provides several
examples of buildings that exhibit functional design in Philadelphia and compare
those to very similar buildings designed by Sullivan in Chicago.

Winston Weisman," Philadelphia Functionalism and Louis Sullivan"
The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol 20, No. 1 [cc]

Frame: The Author frames an interesting argument for establishing an importance of the role of architecture in Philadelphia in the mid nineteenth century as a paving ground of the functionalist style of a well-established architect, Louis Sullivan of the Chicago school of thought, forty years later. The basic purpose of his discussion is that he illustrates that Philadelphia's contribution did not end with the classical revival but continued well into the third quarter of the century. He believes that the scheme applied by L Sullivan to Wainwright building, 1890-91 for which the prophet of modern architecture became famous, originated in Johnston building forty years before. The author has a very intriguing style of discussion. He builds up questions and exemplifies the answers with help of imagination, facts and figures as quotes from people on the related subject. The use of hand drawn illustrations of various buildings under discussion supports his hypothetical and yet quite convincing argument of the discussion of mid nineteenth century commercial architecture in Philadelphia erected between 1849-59. He categorizes them into three categories of monuments in which the structural skeleton façade emphasized. In the second, verticality is stressed. The third fuses these two tendencies into a structural-vertical composition. Quoting examples of each of these styles, the author builds up an engaging argument as he derives the process of development of the architectural style in Philadelphia to ornate gothic and renaissance styles to more functionalist attitude that existed in Philadelphia in during 1850's. The author's well ground approach to the subject approach becomes highly objective when he traces the relationship of Louis Sullivan with Philadelphia where he worked for Frank Furness and Hewitt. He convinces the reader that Sullivan witnessed the progressive change in Philadelphia's architecture in 1850's and derived his mastered compositions on powerful theory of Form follows Function through the works of Johnston, Button, J C Hoxie, Solomon K. Hoxie of Philadelphia and credits them for paving the way in Philadelphia' architectural history from classical revival to modern architecture.

Point: The motivating factor behind choosing this write up is that the author provides a stimulating argument behind tracing evidences of links between Louis Sullivan's approaches of Form Follows Function with the works of Philadelphia's architects in the 1950's. It is a very captivating argument where the author builds up a series of analytical questions and answers them validating his point. It is rather a very convincing piece in understanding the links of architectural developments in the east and the mid west coasts in United States. He not only illustrates the genius of Louis Sullivan but also battles for attention towards the progressive nature of Philadelphia architecture even after loosing well known institutions like Frank Furness.

Weisman, Winston.  "Philadelphia Functionalism and Sullivan."  The Journal of the society of Architectural Historians, vol. 20, No 1 (March 1961), 3-19. [jg]

The article is written from the perspective of an architectural historian in the early 1960's, before the importance of Frank Furness in the chronology of Modernist architects in the United States was fully realized.  The article challenges the widely held belief that American Modern architecture was born independent of any significant outside influences in Chicago.  The author dissects drawings of now defunct Philadelphia structures to show that the three characteristics of Modernism and Functionality of the Mid-West were in fact first explored in Philadelphia.  Weisman identifies these characteristics as articulation of the structural skeleton in the facade, verticality, and a structural-vertical composition.  Weisman attributes the transfer of these ideas from the east to the Mid-West to the brief time that Louis Sullivan spent in Frank Furness' Philadelphia office.  

Weisman, Winston. "Philadelphia Functionalism and Sullivan." The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 20, no. 1 (Mar., 1961), 3-19. [msd]

The Frame: The Subject, Boundaries and Approach
The framework of this article is quite simple, since the author asks the reader to mull over several provoking questions and then he proceeds to answer them. Weisman bases his article on a hypothesis of Charles Peterson's from 1951. Peterson had argued that Louis Sullivan's Wainwright Building was influenced by Philadelphian functional architecture and more directly William Johnston's Jayne Building. Therefore, was Sullivan truly a revolutionary originalist? Or was he basically following in the footsteps of the progressive Philadelphian architects? Weisman frames his argument around the discussion of several Philadelphian structures built between the years 1849-1859. Furthermore, he increasingly dissects their construction by placing it within one of three generalized categories. The first category involves monuments in which the structural skeleton of the façade is made prominent. The second emphasizes verticality and lastly, the third brings together the two other elements and forms it into a structural-vertical composition. Within these three categories, Weisman draws parallels between the evolution of functional yet decorative architecture of Philadelphia and the rise of Sullivan's Chicago School.

The Point: The Motivating Argument or Purpose
Weisman concludes that Louis Sullivan was in fact swayed by Philadelphian architecture, having spent time working within the Furness and Hewitt office. Sullivan's architectural style was preceded by a group of Philadelphian architects who radically shifted from a horizontal focus to a vertical one and therefore anticipated the functionalist qualities that the Chicago school touted. Furthermore, in comparing works of Sullivan and pre-existing buildings in Philadelphia the influence is clear. Finally, Weisman urges that more respect be given to the architects of mid-nineteenth century Philadelphia because they truly paved the way for the innovations of Sullivan.

Tatum, George B., Penn's Great Town: 250 Years of Philadelphia Architecture Illustrated in Prints and Drawings; University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA; © 1961, "Modern Philadelphia" (c.1920-1960) (pp.129-139) {aca]

In this section, the author establishes how Philadelphia developed into its modern character after WWI from an architectural and engineering perspective. The author recognizes the continuing tradition of Creative Eclecticism in Philadelphia into the 1930's by architects like the University of Pennsylvania's own Paul Philippe Cret. The author also mentions how advancements in engineering and technology were affecting the city with the erection of new bridges, buildings and systems. The founding of new architectural theories and forms allowed for the idea of group housing and the creation of suitable modern structures for the expanding city. In addition, the chapter explains how the state of Pennsylvania's revolutionary change in attitude toward historic structures influenced the preservation of important structures surviving from earlier periods. The point of this chapter is to explain how modern architecture came to be accepted and erected in Philadelphia by World War II, with the help of international influence, and how Philadelphia came to be a city of great architectural innovation and leadership.

Stern, Robert A.M. "PSFS: Beaux-Arts Theory and Rational Expressionism." The
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians
, vol. 21, No. 2 (May,
1962), 84-102. [fw]

Stern explores the much overlooked influence of Howe's Beaux Arts training on
the PSFS building which is typically noted as a representation of the
International Style in America. Although building superficially reflects what
is to be believed as Lescaze's aspiration, the author insists that the
rationality and theory stems from the Beaux Art. The appendix contains a
series of extensive correspondence between the architect and the client
revealing defense and criticisms that resulted in buildings details.   

Warner, Sam Bass, Jr.
1962 The Private City: Philadelphia in Three Periods of Growth.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Chapter 9, "Some Metropolitan Districts,"
part 2, "The Downtown," pp. 185-194. [jc]

Sections in this chapter are meant to emphasis the "city of neighborhoods"
character of Philadelphia. The city is composed of discrete units which are
interdependent, but are "each varied from the other in the age of its
buildings, local employment, classes and ethic groups" (185-7). The author
describes the "downtown" area's unique, seemingly artificial place as "not a
microcosm of the metropolis [but] a special environment composed by grouping
those functions of the city which depended for their existence on being in the
largest central place" (187-8), and gives a brief summaries of the inhabitant's
social and economic demographics (e.g. 186, 191). A significant section
(191-194) is devoted to a critique of the city's transit system, including a
history of its development. The point of the section is to describe the growth
of the city in the context the historical realities which directed, focused, or
limited that growth, and highlight the centrality of the view that
Philadelphia's downtown has always identified itself primarily as "a place of
business [and the] pursuit of wealth" (194).

Warner, Jr., Sam Bass. "Ch. 4: Industrialization," The Private City; Philadelphia in Three Periods of Its Growth. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press (1970 [1962]), 63-78. [rb]

During the first half of the 19th century, industrialization caused the rapid growth of the city of Philadelphia as well as a change in the social structure of its inhabitants. In this chapter, Warner touches on the financial instability of the era, the dramatic shifts in the working class caused by technologies (especially transportation), the formation of various early labor unions, the rise of the middle class, the increase in cheaper commodities, and the role of working women. By the mid-19th century, a new strategy was necessary to keep order in a city that had experienced such a surge in population growth that traditional orders in smaller societies could no longer control, namely a larger role by policemen and political bosses.

Warner Jr., Sam Bass, The Private City: Philadelphia in Three Periods of Its Growth; University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA; © 1968
Chapter 3: Spatial Patterns of Rapid Growth (pp. x-xi, 49-62) [aca]

In this chapter, the author examines Philadelphia's growth patterns and metamorphosis into a modern city from 1830 to 1860. The author stressed in the introduction that "the first purpose of the citizen is the private search for wealth; the goal of a city is to be a community of private money makers." The point of the chapter is to explain how the American tradition of privatism failed to adapt with the urbanization of Philadelphia, the city of private money makers surpassed the boundaries of the traditional American community, and lines between public and private functions were drawn, all during this time period. Bonham, Jr., J. Blaine, Gerri Spilka, and Darl Rastorfer. Old Cities/ Green Cities. Chicago, IL: American Planning Association, 2002. 107-116. [nk]

This book is a reference guide of approaches and case studies in
the "green movement." It aims to show how cities can be redeveloped using an
environmentally appropriate approach. Chapter 8, "An Initiative for
Philadelphia's Renaissance" documents a scenario in which the city could be
resurrected using a Green Strategy in conjunction with "economic, social and
physical redevelopment plans." (110) The point of the chapter is to provide a
strategy to engage Philadelphia redevelopment by "improving the quality of
urban life in order to retain current residents and businesses and to attract
new housing and commercial investment to Philadelphia's neighborhoods." (108-
109)


1965 on:

Cox. Harold E. "'Daily Except Sunday:' Blue Laws and the Operation of Philadelphia Horsecars." The Business History Review, Vol. 39, No. 2 (Summer, 1965), 228-242. [ms]

In this article the author explores issues such as class tensions, early business struggles, and religious freedom by examining the role that Pennsylvania Blue Laws played in the Sunday operation of Philadelphia horsecars. He does this first by explaining a bit about how Philadelphia developed geographically and grew in population, and therefore sets the scene for why public transport became an issue for the working class living in the city starting around the 1850's.

The Blue Laws referred to in the article's title are two acts, the first of which was passed in 1794, restricting the Sunday activities of Pennsylvania residents to "works of necessity and charity." The second act, passed in 1798 and affecting only Philadelphians, gave houses of worship the right to literally chain off the street in front of their buildings in order to prevent all traffic from passing by and disrupting Sunday services.

The author takes a very interesting approach by even-handedly discussing this moment in history as being as much about class conflict as it was about freedom of religion and the power and pressure of business to change law. Class enters the story because the specific horsecars that were ordered by law to stop running on Sundays were serving an overwhelmingly working class public, offering routes that would allow for a day trip out of the city on their one day off from work.
Those who argued the problem to be one of religious freedom claimed that their ability to worship was compromised by the omnibuses' noisy passengers and bells. Finally, the horsecar companies used a combination of legal challenges and public relations stunts to ultimately win the right to provide Sunday transportation to their paying customers.

Baigell, Matthew, John Haviland in Philadelphia, 1818-1826, The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol.25, No.3 (Oct., 1966), 197-208 [at]

John Haviland was an architect that contrubted a number of significant building to the city of Philadelphia which ranged in their intended use as well as style. The author seeks to draw attention away from Haviland's renown as the architect of the Eastern Penitentiary and focus on his other architectural accomplishments and their importance to the history of Philadelphia and the entire country.

Baigell follows Haviland's career, which began in England, and traces his interest in classical styles from his years as a student to a well trained architect who arrived in Philadelphia at a time when there had been a six year architectural lull. To support his conviction that Haviland was a crucial figure in American architecture, Baigell emphasizes not just the beauty of Haviland's buildings but his strong knowledge of Greek architecture and his intentional interpretation of the style as well as his more literal representation of its strict proportions. His ability to design with several different styles in mind and his ability to return to the pure spirit of Greek architecture cement him as one of the most well trained architects in Philadelphia at the time. Even his Eastern Penitentiary, although derived more clearly from medieval architecture, still displays an interest in classical form.

Although best known as a prison architect, the most positive responses he received from critics during his lifetime was for his adherence to the principles of Greek architecture. Baigell uses this history to make his argument and goes even further to acknowledge Haviland's crucial role in the Greek Revival movement hoping to overshadow his reputation as the designer behind the Eastern Penitentiary.

Baigell, Matthew. "John Haviland in Philadelphia, 1818-1826." The Journal of the
Society of Architectural Historians
25.3 (1966): 197-208. [lrh]

Baigell seeks to justify John Haviland as one of Philadelphia's most significant architects, as well as illustrate his diverse talent, beyond that of his famed prison designs. The author asserts that although Haviland's architectural style was considered Grecian during his heyday, he took a uniquely subtle approach, exemplifying an extremely planer effect to the facades of his buildings. Further emphasizing the distinctive nature of Haviland's work, his designs rarely account for their environments and a variety of architectural stylistic elements are often used "with equal facility". The medieval Philadelphia Eastern Penitentiary, the classical Philadelphia College of Art, and the more decorative façade of the Blight House were all given for reference.

Wood, Charles B., III. "The John Hare Powel House: New Material on John McArthur, Jr., Hoxie & Button, and Richard Upjohn." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians v. 26, n. 2 (May 1967): 148-153. [jb]

The focus of Wood's essay is on the architects who designed the Powel House and on the wealth of material that exists to document the design and construction of the house. Wood discusses the role that each architect played in the design of the building and directs the reader to architectural drawings, photographs, family papers, receipts, account books, and correspondence to learn more about the house and its architects.

Poppeliers, John C. "The 1867 Philadelphia Masonic Temple Competition." The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 26, No. 4 (Dec., 1967), 278-284. [msd]

The Frame: The Subject, Boundaries and Approach
Within this article, Poppeliers discusses the history of the Masonic Temple in Philadelphia and the events that led up to its design and construction in 1868. During the nineteenth century, the Free Masons of Philadelphia were prosperous and so many in number that it became crucial that a new Temple was commissioned to replace the old. Poppeliers takes the reader through the competition process as well as explains many of the design entries. Furthermore, the battle between the Free Masons and the American Institute of Architects over compensation is discussed. In the end, James H. Windrim, who had been only twenty-seven years old at the time, entered the winning entry.

The Point: The Motivating Argument or Purpose
John C. Poppeliers argues that it was not the resulting winning structure that was important, since the Masonic Temple was not generally praised or even admired, but the design competition itself. There were two significant lasting effects of the competition, one of them being the launching pad for James H. Windrim, who later had a very successful career. Furthermore, the competition provided the opportunity for American architects to organize themselves as a group of professionals.

Ames, Kenneth. "Robert Mills and the Philadelphia Row House." The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 27, No. 2 (May, 1968), 140-146. [msd]

The Frame: The Subject, Boundaries and Approach
Robert Mills was the first native-born American-educated architect. His influence in Philadelphia is most prominent on the styling of row houses. Kenneth Ames postulates in this article that Mills was influenced by Sir John Sloane and then goes on to compare Mills' Franklin Row with those designed by Sloane. One of the trademarks of Mills' row houses was the appearance of grandeur. Nothing like these architectural details had ever been seen before on a row house. Ames further goes on to discuss the two stylistic tendencies of nineteenth century row houses.

The Point: Motivating Argument or Purpose
Ames ends this article with several statements. He concludes that most row houses in Philadelphia were surprisingly not influenced by Mills' Franklin Row, except for one, Carolina Row. Ames concluded that Carolina Row had most likely been built by Mills as well due to the many similarities between Franklin and Carolina. Franklin Row is important for two reasons. The first of which it represented Mills' desire as an American architect to replicate the English tradition of designing row houses of architectural cohesiveness and not just as identical replicas of each other. Furthermore, Mills recognized that the row house was worthy of elaborated design. He modernized them in such a way that they could not be considered a "poor" project.

Kenneth Ames, "Robert Mills and the Philadelphia Row House," The
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians
27, No. 2 (1968):
140. [gg]

Ames touches on the history of row houses in Philadelphia, however he
specifically discusses the block of houses known as Franklin Row
designed by Robert Mills. According to Ames, Mill's Franklin Row was
progressive in its ability to emulate the British building tradition
while also bring the row house up to date and advancing the style to a
unified composition.

Ame's purpose for writing the article may have been to highlight the
achievements of Robert Mills and his contribution to the historic
culture of Philadelphia row houses.

Warner, Sam Bass. (1968, October) "If all the world were Philadelphia: A scaffolding for urban history 1790-1930." The American Historical Review, Volume 74, no. 1. [dom]

In this article, the author attempts to piece together how the city changed in response to the changes of technology and population throughout its growth period from 1790-1930: from an outpost exchanging staple good, to a center of inter regional commerce and finally a highly specialized center of commerce and trade. Through tables showing what professions existed at what times, a picture of the changes in the city's level of specialization can be pieced together. Through references to historic maps of population distribution, the author was able to piece together also how the city became increasingly segregated into the twentieth century; this can be accounted for because peoples of similar professions tended to cluster around their homes, creating a patchwork of rich and poor urban clusters. By 1930, however, the wealthier became less subject to live where their work was located (possibly due to the automobile).

I chose this article to provide as a follow-up to the first chosen article. It is a practical explanation of why Philadelphia developed the way it did. Building off from the first article, one can conjecture about what the makeup of Philadelphia was like during its changeable periods during modernization. Seeing where people lived and why they lived there, one can begin to roughly conclude what classes lived where and what types of structures those people might have constructed; pertaining to economic, social and occupational constraints. Since much of what was constructed during this period still exists to a large degree in Philadelphia, the sort of neighborhood-specific analysis that this article is a strong basis for any researcher wanting to conduct an historic architectural study.

Ames, Kenneth. (1968, October) Robert Mills and the Philadelphia Rowhouse. The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians > Vol. 27, No. 2 (May, 1968), pp. 140-146. [dom]

This article gives a brief history of the early development of the Philadelphia Row House. It focuses on Franklin Row and gives a precise description on why this design was so significant to the development of Philadelphia architecture. He beings by claiming the row house was a change in technology after the population of the city began to grow exponentially in the early 19th century. Franklin Row was designed not as another assembly line style of housing, but where each house contributed to the beauty and functionality of the whole; an emulation of English architecture of the time. This method of urban architecture is important for it demonstrates one of the first innovative approaches to urban housing seen in America.

I chose this article for it was a good jumping off point for study into how the housing in Philadelphia changed in response to the shifts of population and wealth in the city. As in any other city with a growing and evolving population, new and better types of housing are needed. For preservationist study, knowing that many of these units were not isolated as they may appear today but a part of a group of houses and that this style of design had wide reaching affects on Philadelphian row house architecture is essential. First, preserving one house is inadequate if one does not take into account the houses wider place in its historic surroundings; whether or not they still are intact. Second, for anyone to account for why and how period houses look, one must look back on how the property borrowed from and improved upon its predecessors. Although solely focused on early row house design, the article does awaken the importance in looking back to what earlier innovations brought about future advancements.

Kenneth Ames, "Robert Mills and the Philadelphia Row House," The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians Vol. 27, No. 2 (May, 1968), pp. 140-146. [pf]

Kenneth Ames examines the work of Robert Mills (1781 ­ 1855), who claimed to be the first American educated architect. The principal study of the article is Franklin Row, designed by Mills in the early 19th century. These row houses were unusual for their time as they featured tripartite windows with a recessed arch on both the first and second floors. Ames also attributes Carolina Row on Spruce Street to Mills, though there is no documentation of this.

Ames argues that Mills' designs emulate the "grand traditions of England by creating a row of houses as a unified architectural composition" (145), and therefore set him apart from his contemporaries. For example, row house designs from two other prominent architects of the time, Latrobe and Carstairs, were little altered from those of the mid to late 18th century. In writing the piece, Ames wishes to draw attention to the unique designs of Mills, and to present the case that Mills is likely the architect of Carolina Row in addition to Franklin Row.

Wodehouse, Lawrence. "John MacArthur, Jr. (1823-1890)." The Journal of the Society
of Architectural Historians
, Vol. 28, No. 4 (Dec., 1969): 271-283. [ecb]

In this article Wodehouse discusses the work of Philadelphia architect John MacArthur,
Jr., decisively highlighting and assessing the architect's works otherwise overshadowed
by his most famed building, Philadelphia City Hall. By presenting and analyzing these
understudied works the author argues that MacArthur was a more prolific and competent
builder-architect than for which he is often given credit.

Tinkcom, Margaret B. "Southwark, a River Community: Its Shape and Substance." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 114, No. 4 (August, 20, 1970), 327-342. [ms]

This article is a detailed look at the Southwark neighborhood, from its begin as a settlement to its official incorporation into the City of Philadelphia in 1854. The author uses architectural plans, insurance surveys, wills, first hand accounts, old photographs, newspaper advertisements, paintings and more to help tell the story of how the neighborhood was settled and by whom. Briefly put, she explains how the original inhabitants of Southwark were mostly either artisans or merchants who depended on the Delaware River for their livelihood. Their largely working class status was reflected in the houses they built (tending towards the small and simple), but also impacted how the buildings changed over time. Instead of knocking down a house when it was outgrown or considered out of style (as did many of their better off Philadelphia neighbors), the modest means of the inhabitants permitted them only to add on to what they already had. The author points out that, while certainly buildings in Southwark have been demolished over the years, we actually still have many rich examples of some of the earliest housing styles that were constructed in Philadelphia's first district, Southwark.

Wolcott, John R. "Philadelphia's Chestnut Street Theatre: A Plan and Elevation."
The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 30, no. 3 (1971):209-218. [ew]

This article tries to uncover the little known history of the Chestnut Street
Theatre by discussing details of a possible plan and elevation for the building.
Since there is very little documentation on the theatre, the author gives
evidence to show that it was most likely designed by Ingio Richards and later
finished by Latrobe. The author compares the elevation drawn by Richards with a
plan and elevation drawn after Latrobe's design. By closely comparing the
measurements on Richard's drawings and the later elevation and plan, the author
is able to draw conclusions about the original design, possible blunders by
builders and the mistakes of Latrobe.

ZANDI, Iraj. "A report on the Schuylkill River / prepared by Iraj Zandi at th
request of U.S. Congressman Lawrence Coughlin." University of Pennsylvania,
Towne School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering: Philadelphia, PA, 1971. [pfj]

A) This report gives a thorough condition survey of the Schuylkill River water
as of 1971, covering past and contemporary reasons for pollution, measures
(political and physical) taken in the past, and projected results and possible
further solutions.
B) This is an excellent source of information concerning specific pollutants
and results in the 1970s and serves as a marker by which to measure improvement
in conditions in the river. The proposed solutions could be traced for
efficacy and subsequent solutions proposed. The included specific data could
be useful not simply as a benchmark for present water/river quality, but could
also be useful in potential building assesments as well.

Rose, Dan. Black American Street Life: South Philadelphia, 1969-1971. Philadelphia: UPenn UP. [as]

o I read the first chapter “Knowing Oursevles”. It is an ethnographic exploration of African Americans in South Philadelphia. Rose primarily focuses on Waverly Street using the techniques that W.E.B. DuBois utilized in the book The Philadelphia Negro. I would not recommend this book for documentation purposes. The author strays too much from the actual site to delve into odd memories and reflections on black culture.

Wolf II, Edwin, Philadelphia: Portrait of an American City; a Bicentennial History; Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA; © 1975
Chapter 10: 1900-1930 (pp.263-298) [aca]

In this chapter, the author examines Philadelphia during the period 1900-1930, primarily from a social perspective. The author explored topics like the city's transportation system, which was considered the best in the nation; the early cultural segregation; the unifying of the city after WWI; the wartime shortages and postwar depression; the excitement ignited by the building of the Pennsylvania Railroad; the modernization of public departments; the Prohibition and how it was mocked in the city; and the diverse industries that helped support and make up the city. The purpose of the chapter was to ascertain the confidence and social, cultural, political, industrial diversity of the city during the time period.

Blackmar, Elizabeth. "The Urban Landscape" in Journal of Architectural Education, vol.30, no. 1 (September 1976) p. 12-14. [tsd]

The focus of this article is to introduce critical questions and sources for understanding the development of the urban landscape. These are general statements and questions in that they may be applied to any city of nineteenth century America.

Blackmar articulates that in order to understand the context of buildings and cities, one must look to the tangible and intangible values expressed by a group within that period of time and space. In conjunction, the values and concerns of researches today must play a role in determining which questions are raised, i.e. power and policy, and how it shaped a city’s development. During the nineteenth century, technology reorganized space and social structure within the American urban landscape. The relation of people to place of work altered, and class separation became more distinct when areas within the city were “designated” with a particular industry. Also, the ideology of ownership, specifically one’s house, became an indication of social status, though many were not able to achieve this goal. Researching contemporaries’ criticism, public records and public policy are also sources of information for understanding the urban landscape and how it functioned in the past.


1980 on:

Giurgola, Romaldo. "An Open Letter to Students and Colleagues." JAE, Vol.
35, No.1, With People in Mind: The Architect-Teacher at Work (Autumn, 1981),
13-17. [fw]

This article does not specifically delve into the physical urban context of
Philadelphia, but offers a historical context of the academic atmosphere
during the heyday of the architectural firm Mitchell Giurgola in
Philadelphia. Giurgola through personal reflection of his professional and
academic experience discusses the correlation of the practice and the teaching
of architecture. He stresses teamwork amongst students as well as
professionals and the community for whom in which they are serving;
architecture can serve as a reflection of the aspirations of a community. It
is interesting to note that Giurgola formulated the studio and seminar method
of teaching architecture while teaching at Penn.

"Schuylkill River Design Guide." Dept. of Environmental Resources: Harrisburg,
PA, 1984. [pfj]

A) This guide discusses the Schuylkill River in environmental, rural, city, and
design contexts. It gives a brief history of the river's use and state up
until 1984 and proposes environmental (planting, topographic, landscape)
changes in order to improve the state of the waterfront. It also proposes
possible architectural improvements that could take place that could further
activate the riverfront and sustain viable growth and improvement.
B) This source serves as an optimistic update on Zandi's proposals, ironically
coming from the state department of environmental resources. One can trace the
evolution of awareness about the river in all its contexts (particularly on a
governmental level, perhaps as a result of Zandi's work) and how to better
allow it to weave through the city environment. It gives context to any
changes done in this time, particularly those by the state or public funds.

Pack, Janet Rothenberg, "Urban Spacial Transformation: Philadelphia, 1850 to 1880, Heterogeneity to Homogeneity?," Social Science History, Vol.8, No.4 (Autumn, 1984), 425-454. [at]

The mid to late nineteenth century in America is widely believed to be a turning point from the heterogeneity of neighborhoods to the homogeneity. Pack's article examines why and how this conclution was formed, how the conclution is problematic and what new criteria should be used in order to more accurately approach the changes that occurred during the period, particularly between 1860 and 1870. Philadelphia was chosen as the model for these studies for the quality of it's data and it's similarities to other American cities in terms of urbanization and immigration.

Pack begins by addressing three studies that were done in the 1960's, 70's and 80's that all point to a shift between 1860-1870 that resulted in neighborhoods that were separated by a difference in income, occupation and ethnicity. The catalyst for these clusters of population groups was attributed to the introduction of mass transport. For her own study she emphasizes the importance of examining groups not based on comparisons to the overall population as the previous studies have done but comparing specific areas to each other where the population distributions are more similar.

Pack's study of Philadelphia during 1850-1880 used a framework that focused on the similarties of the comparisons that are made about population size and occupation, which was a good indicator of wealth(no income data from 19th century census). For example, heterogeneous neighborhoods were compared to homogenous neighborhoods with compable population sizes. The conclution that she reaches is that size is a much bigger factor than location. Smaller neighborhoods tended to be more homogenous than larger neighborhood and this was true whether they lay in the center of the city or in the outskirts. As neighborhoods shifted there was a lack of consistency between which neighborhood remained heterogeneous and which became homogenous. Employment distribution is suggested as a possible explanation for the shift but is one that will have to be determined in a whole new study.


Sandeen, Eric J. "The Design of Public Housing in the New Deal: Oskar Stonorov
and the Carl Mackley Houses." American Quarterly 37 (1985): 645-667. [nk]

The subject of this piece by Eric Sandeen is The Carl Mackley Houses in
Northeast Philadelphia. His approach to the article is to give a background of
the project in economic, social, planning and architectural sentiments.
Sandeen illustrated the Mackley Housing Project as an example for future public
housing development based on European progenitor and 1930s socialist idealism.
The point of the journal article was to place the housing development into its
historical context: why it was built, what were its features and what attitudes
surrounded its construction.

Gibson, Jane Mork. The Fairmount Waterworks. (Program Bulletin for PMA Exhibition on the Waterworks). Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1988. [js]

Frame: The publication documents the Fairmount Waterworks’s contribution to technology, civic works, public space and civic art through well- documented research and illustrations including historic photographs, etchings, plans, and paintings as well as contemporary photographs of existing sculptures. The text covers the period from 1793 to the mid-twentieth century to document the reasons for building the plant in 1812 through its somewhat sad reincarnations through early adaptive reuse schemes after the site was decommissioned as a waterworks in 1909.
Focus (Point): This booklet was published on the occasion of the Philadelphia Art Museum’s exhibition, “The Fairmount waterworks. 1812 – 1911” which celebrates the restoration of the waterworks through a detailed accounting of its history. As a bulletin created in concert with an art exhibition the publication is shaped by the author’s extrodinary access to and license to reprint the fine art and sculpture that the site either inspired or housed.

Brownlee, David Bruce. Chapter 2. Building the City Beautiful: The Benjamin
Franklin Parkway and the Philadelphia Art Museum
. Philadelphia: The
Philadelphia Art Museum. 1989.13-37. [fw]

This reading chronologically describes the evolution of the Benjamin Franklin
Parkway through the context of politics, public opinion, and history.
Brownlee describes the beginnings of the parkway during the ideological "city
beautiful" movement, through various interpretations, and oppositions to the
final construction much like it stands today.

Mumford, Mark. "Form Follows Nature: The Origins of American Organic Architecture."
The Journal of Architectural Education 42.3 (1989): 26-37. [lrh]

This article addressed the relationship between the architectural styles of Frank Lloyd Wright, Louis Sullivan, and most specifically Frank Furness (describing primarily the dynamics of his Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts). Mumford's argument was that, based on the transcendental philosophy that characterized his upbringing as well as his apprenticeship under the French trained Richard Morris Hunt, Furness passed on the initial trend of 'organic' architectural style to Sullivan and Wright. The chronological association between these three infamous architects essentially founded in America "an organic tradition [that] architecture is based on a fundamental aesthetic theoryform should always follow function."

Michael J. Lewis, "Silent, Weird, Beautiful: Philadelphia City Hall", Nineteenth Century,
Vol. 11, No 3-4 (1992), pp. 13-21. [pf]

Michael Lewis provides an account of the tumultuous beginnings of Philadelphia City Hall, designed by John McArthur, Jr. during the late 19th Century. The evolution of McArthur's designs over 12 years is traced, and the influence of T.U. Walters is discussed. Lewis also discusses the sculpture program for City Hall, which he believes expressed the aspiration of late 19th Century Philadelphia to reclaim the national prominence it once enjoyed.

Lewis places the design and construction of City Hall in the context of 19th Century Philadelphia political and social environment, noting the commission was at the epicenter of "political favoritism, conflicting property interests, and brutal unconcealed greed" (13). Yet despite such an unpromising beginning, Lewis argues that McArthur's final product was a triumph. Unlike Second Empire style Parisian structures, City Hall was not an "imperial" building, and "remained profoundly, even chronically Philadelphian, anchored at street level and not hoisted above it, egalitarian, and not dominated by an axial hierarch" (20).

Cotter, John L., Daniel G. Roberts, and Michael Parrington
1992 The Buried Past: An Archaeological History of Philadelphia.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Chapter 3, pp. 74-118. [jc]

The goal of the work is to summarize both the history and the history of
archaeological investigation for each area of Philadelphia and its outliers.
It describes both the results of individual excavations and the histories of
some people and events associated with the sites, as well as combining both
historical sources and the results of excavation to describe the city as it
stands today and its history. In the case of Independence Hall and its
surroundings-the subject of this chapter-the work "focused on providing proof
of location and on recording the character of the artifacts and architectural
remains encountered" (77). The point of the writing is at least three fold: 1)
to collect and list summaries of archaeological work accomplished in the city
(84, 93-4, 100, 114-19); 2) to give the history of the places investigated,
both in terms of their historical significance and the people who lived,
worked, or were associated with the buildings (79-80, 86-91, 98-99, 101-102,
104, 105, 106-13); 3) perhaps most centrally, to describe the contribution of
archaeological investigation to the work of Historic Preservation and
Historical knowledge (77, 86, 95-6).

Reinberger, Mark. "Belmont: The Bourgeois Villa in Eighteenth Century Philadelphia." Arris: Journal of the Southeast Chapter of the Society of Architectural Historians, Volume 9 (1995): Pages 13-39. [abc]

Reinberger offers a reinterpretation of the development of the country house in the Philadelphia area. In his examination he focuses on Belmont; the first of what followed in a series of country houses. He emphasizes what made the house unique for it's time in what were then the colonies. This included the building's plan, style, and ornamental landscaping. Belmont Mansion continues to be a unique feature to Fairmount Park. Its period and restoration context are all areas I hope to focus on in my own work.

Salinger, Sharon V. "Spaces, inside and outside, in Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia." Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Summer 1995): 1-31. [ac]

Salinger states in his article that there has been considerable attention to 18th Century Philadelphia being that it was the "largest city in the British North America on the eve of the American Revolution." The records from the first insurance company, Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insuring of Houses From Loss by Fire, make it possible to observe the growth of the city, its distribution of wealth and how this affected the sizes of the exterior and interior spaces of Philadelphia. Salinger states that the distribution of insurance to only certain people started the criteria for an informal building code. These are contributing factors in describing why most buildings are made of brick, the existence of more outbuildings, thicker walls, etc. Salinger also addresses the space use. He argues that instead of Philadelphia following Penn's dream of orderly spacing containing large residences on large land plots, there were just more buildings crowded into smaller spaces. The crowded lots gave way to alleys and the built space arising from the size of the alley in comparison to the street. All of this can be concluded from the records of the insurance company which tells of use of space, number of rooms, number of occupants, number of stories on the house, the material of the house, how much money to cover, and much more.

De Cunzo, Lu Ann. (1995) Reform, respite, ritual: An archeology of institutions: the Magdalen Society of Philadelphia, Historical Archaeology, 29(3) pp. 12-15, 29-31,
36-47. [af]

(a) Through historical and archeological research, De Cunzo provides details of the buildings that housed the Magdalen Society of Philadelphia, a reform home for prostitutes.  She describes the social context and architectural trends that influenced the shape and location of the buildings.
 
(b) The Magdalen Society was started in 1800 as part of an effort by upper class merchants to reform the lower classes and stem what was perceived as growing violence in the Southwark neighborhood.  It was located on the opposite end of what was then the extent of Philadelphia at the corner of 21st and Race Streets, was far from the center of the city, and somewhat difficult to reach.  Through a series of additions and alterations the structure changed forms several times.  It began as a simple wooden building with two rooms on each floor and was rebuilt as a compartmentalized Federalist brick building thought to encourage self-reflection, propriety and respect.  Additions to the building moved the residents from the front to the rear of the property and when the concept of hierarchy was added, the newest residents were separated from those who were thought to have made some progress.  Overall, the physical shape of the institution seems to have many similarities with other asylums built at the time, however significant differences exist depending on who was running the home.

Mark Reinberger, Elizabeth McLean, "Isaac Norris's Fairhill:
Architecture, Landscape, and the Quaker Ideals in a Philadelphia
Colonial Seat," Winterthur Portfolio 32, No. 4 (1997): 243. [gg]

Reinberger and McLean discuss the development of the villa life and
ideology in eighteenth century Pennsylvania through the life and home
of Isaac Norris. The building of Norris's home, Fairhill, is
chronicled and discussed in great detail. However, beyond the
construction, Reinberger and Mclean address the issues of Fairhill in
relation to Penn's original plan, British influence, emerging American
ideals, and Quaker values. Fairhill becomes a case study for changing
American attitudes towards the country estate.
The authors may of chosen to address Fairhill in this article in order
to raise awareness of its influence in relation to other well
documented New England and Virginian Estates. Likewise, they may of
wanted to highlight the unique influence Quaker beliefs on the home.

Reinberber, Mark and Elizabeth McLean.  "Isaac Norris's Fairhill: Architecture, Landscape, and Quaker Ideals in a Philadelphia Country Seat." Winterthur Portfolio, Vol. 32, NO. 4 (Winter, 1997), 243-274. [jg]

The article is a collaborative effort by two architectural historians.  From the professional vocabulary and scholarly references used in the article it can be assumed that they are addressing their peers.  The authors use a country pleasure house built outside Philadelphia in the early stages of the city's development to give insight into the ideals of the Quaker population that settled the area.  Although the house is no longer standing, architectural drawings, contemporary records, and family histories are used to provide an understanding of the appearance of the house and grounds as well as allow the reader to understand the original function of the home.  The house, Fairhill, is used to explore the importance the early Quaker community in Philadelphia placed on farming, plainness, and frugality. 

Reinberger, Mark, and Elizabeth McLean
1997 "Isaac Norris's Fairhill: Landscape and Quaker Ideals in a Philadelphia
Colonial Country Seat." Winterthur Portfolio. 32 (4): 243-274. [jc]

The piece describes the ideal of the "bourgeois country house" including its
historical context. According to the author, Isaac Norris to built Fairhill in
1712-17 in part as "fulfillment of the Quaker ideals of a virtuous life in the
country away from both the riches and worries of the city" (244). The history
of the development of Penn's "Green country town," (245) -Philadelphia-is
brought in along with very detailed a history of the construction of the
buildings of Fairhill and their builders and occupants. Both the difficulties
(252, 264) and extravagances (250, 253, 259) in building are noted. The author
highlights the architectural peculiarities of the construction: plan, kitchen
location, and landscaping/farming are all mentioned (254-260, 260-66), and
compared to other "Philadelphia villas" (256-8, 264). The point is an argument
for Quakerism as a motivation Norris's house and grounds as described: the ideal
of "a country life," an early "back to nature" mentality.

Reinberger, Mark and Elizabeth McLean. "Issac Norris's Fairhill: Architecture,
Landscape, and Quaker Ideals in a Philadelphia Colonial Country Seat." Winterthur
Portfolio
, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Winter, 1997): 243-274. [ecb]

Authors Reinberger and McLean make the case for Issac Norris's Fairhill home as an
important example of the early American colonial country house embodying two
attitudes: serenity and agricultural production. As William Penn's executor and a
significant builder in Philadelphia, Issac Norris had ample funds to construct the house
and maintain crops; however, being a devout Quaker and having such wealth he struggled
with the plainness and frugality that his religion demanded. McLean and Reinberger
argue that Norris was indeed motivated by his Quaker foundation that shaped the
agricultural production and sanctuary that the house and land provided him. Through the
change in practices of the subsequent inhabitants, they note a distinction in Norris's
religion-motivated practices. The authors assert that Fairhill is, in fact, the earliest
Philadelphia country house for which much information exists, and therefore it is a great
learning tool in understanding such homes from late the 17 th Century.

Adams, Carolyn T.. "The Philadelphia Experience (in Case Studies: The Regional City)." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science- Globalization and the Changing US City. 551. (May, 1997): 222-234. [awd]

Frame: Subject, Boundaries, ApproachCarolyn Adams discusses Philadelphia's status as a regional city rather than a world city. She limits her piece to city politics, economics, and Philadelphia examples. As a result, she reveals the complex nature of city development and planning in regards to finances and legislature. Adams uses the Pennsylvania Convention Center, the Ports of Philadelphia and Camden, and the Naval Shipyard to expose the advantages and problems associated with Philadelphia's status as a regional city. According to the author, Philadelphia meets 2 out of the 3 characteristics of a world city: It has a high concentration of producer services; it has a rich physical and social infrastructure. However, where Philadelphia fails to engage in global domination is that it lacks a management and banking system of global reach. Overall, Adams approaches a rather complex topic and breaks it down for the reader in a clear and concise manner.

Point: Motivation, Argument, Purpose
Adams argues that coordination between city and suburban leaders in politics is crucial for securing state dollars and development. However, the political and business leaders within and surrounding Philadelphia are ineffective, even in regards to promoting an infrastructure that supports business. Businesses see human services, education, and open-space planning as the political establishment's responsibility. If they cannot get it right at the local level, they will not make it at the global level. For this reason, Philadelphia will never be considered a global city as it cannot even function adequately at the regional level.

The author reasons that because the city has experienced a decline in manufacturing and a rise in social services, the city is now, more than ever, locally oriented. The benefits, though, are: that this keeps prices down and allows local businesses to survive while it simultaneously stabilizes local economy. After all, why would most investors want to invest abroad when they can feel the effects of their efforts at home?

Adams cites legislation as a proponent of localization. City planning is virtually impossible within Pennsylvania, as it grants each of its 239 municipalities almost total control over land use within its borders. The regional planning commissioner is unable to impose any plan; they may only exhort municipalities to fashion zoning ordinances to encourage higher-density development.

Adams argument is straight-forward and effective. Through excellent examples, she merely reviews and outlines Philadelphia's economics and policy as a regional city in an unbiased fashion. She explains that this is neither good, nor bad; Philadelphia has just taken a shape different from the larger cities, like New York or Los Angeles. And for this reason, we begin to understand more about Philadelphia's plan and the complex nexus it has developed in regards to the type of city it has and will become. The components of plan, geography, legislature, and social are all intertwined and affect each other.

Bartelt, David W.. "Urban Housing in an Era of Global Capital (in Issues and Problems)." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science- Globalization and the Changing US City. 551. (May, 1997): 121-136. [awd]

Frame: Subject, Boundaries, Approach
David Bartelt's article reviews the implications of globalization in regards to Philadelphia's urban housing. He begins his article by reviewing the US's involvement in a global frame since World War II. According to the author, this has had serious implications on urban housing, residential capital, and wages and income. He says that older manufacturing cities struggle to co-exist within a new-found liquidity and new forms of financial investment. This is partially due to the nature of real estate: housing is the exact opposite of the quickly drained, frail, easily replaceable service items on which much of the current manufacturing economy is dependent. Housing investment is incredibly conservative when compared to the nature of investment in modern-day society. Overall, Bartelt stays well within the parameters of his stated topic and cohesively binds the issues of globalization and development and presents them to his readers in a well-organized, uncomplicated manner.

Point: Motivation, Argument, Purpose
Bartelt's objective is to allow his readers to view the correlation between local housing policies and global context. Bartelt uses Philadelphia as an example to consider issues of abandonment, affordability, and homelessness because he believes that they accurately portray the negative effects of a global urban system. He blames globalization for the decentralization of the city, citing that it has broken its unified nature and created a mini version of globalization- one in which localities are pitted against one another. He also cites an increase in service goods and racial antipathy as two by-products of globalization. He then concludes his article by examining the ways in which urban housing can be placed within a global context. He believes that in order to solve the decay and dilapidation of Philadelphia's (and similar cities') urban housing, we must understand the factors that may be attributed to such demise. Bartelt concludes his article by summing up his point. He urges everyone to think globally, but act locally so as to reorganize the processes that intersect with global labor and capital in order to redirect profit. According to the author, there is a need to revive local economic development, and a need to combine it with community development.

Farnham, Jonathan E. (1998). Staging the Tragedy of Time: Paul Cret and the Delaware River
Bridge. The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 57(3), 258-279. [da]

In this interesting paper Farnham recounts the design and the construction of the
Delaware River Bridge in the context of a struggle between Architects and Engineers that was
occurring at the time. He devotes much of the beginning of his article to this conflict, citing
numerous published letters and articles written by Engineers and by Architects who argued both
for control over the bridge project, and for the supremacy of their professions in then-modern
building construction. Farnham does not take a side in this argument, instead he presents the
design and the construction of the bridge as a successful collaboration between the Chief
Engineer, Ralph Modjeski, and the Chief Architect, Paul Cret.

According to statements published by both Architects and Engineers, bridges were
considered the greatest architectural and engineering endeavors in the early twentieth century ­
the time in which the Delaware river Bridge was built. Bridges symbolically joined two places
together, and their great sizes were grand testaments to the technological achievements of their
cities. Farnham shows Philadelphians felt the symbolic importance of the Delaware River
Bridge, thus it became the center of the debate between Engineers and Architects. In the past the
roles of these two professions were often filled by the same person; however, advances in both
technology and in the art of architecture had caused a recent divergence between the two
occupations. At that time both were fighting for supremacy in the field that they had recently
shared. Farnham considers this divergence and its resultant acrimony a tragedy caused by
progress, because he feels progress lead to Architects who lacked the knowledge of Physics necessary for their designs to work, and to Engineers who did not comprehend the aesthetic
qualities that structures can possess.

However, Farnham recounts the construction of the Delaware River Bridge as a
respectful collaboration between Modjeski and Cret, largely from Cret's perspective. He cites
statements by Cret in which Cret stated that the design of the bridge should not overshadow its
function, instead it should reflect its engineering foundation. Farnham also cites statements in
which Cret seemed to embrace the new designs and the new engineering made available by
modern materials, and he felt Architects should not try to make these new materials conform to
older architectural conventions. From the Engineers' perspective, Farnham notes instances in
which they expressed a desire to ensure that the bridge's design also displayed architectural
merit.

Unfortunately, while providing a fascinating account of the battle between architecture
and engineering involved in the Delaware River Bridge's construction, Farnham fails to relate
how it was received by the city of Philadelphia. This article includes some discussion of how the
bridge was considered by Architects and by Engineers, but lacks a discussion of how it was
considered by the public at large. After introducing bridges as great symbolic statements by
their cities, some discussion of whether or not the public felt that the bridge had met that aim
nicely would have closed this article.

Farnham, Jonathan E. "Staging the Tragedy of Time: Paul Cret and the Delaware River Bridge," The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 57, No. 3 (Sep., 1998), 258-279. [rb]

Farnham looks at the issues surrounding the planning and designing of the Delaware River Bridge in Philadelphia in the early 20th century. During the turn of the century, there was much debate between architects and engineers as to who's approach is more significant in the designing and building of a bridge. Ultimately, Paul Cret, the architect chosen to design the bridge, argued for collaboration between engineers (namely Ralph Modjeski) and architects as being the most forward-thinking way to build a bridge that is both structurally sound and aesthetically beautiful.

Menke, William & Menke, Carol. South Garden Historic Landscape Report. Menke & Menke, Landscape Architects and Planners, Swarthmore, PA, July 1999. [js]

Frame: This report documents the historic landscape periods, garden elements and proposes guidelines for the preservation or restoration of these elements and the interpretation and use of the South Garden portion of the Waterworks site. Exhaustive appendixes including timelines, photographs and site plans depicting many eras are poorly replicated.
Focus: This report was commissioned as a restoration planning tool.

Claflen Jr., George L. "Framing Independence Hall." Places, Volume 13 No. 3 (2000): s use Pages 60-69. [abc]

This article focuses on the changes that continue to take place with Independence Hall. The author introduces the article with a basic overview of the history and architecture of the structure. He notes that problems over the building's use began when the nation's capital, and later the state capital, were both moved to other cities leaving it vacant. At that point, the structure was considered excess property and was purchased by the city. He then discusses the arguments that still continue concerning the building's representation to the public. This structure is an example of a nationally coveted icon. It's restoration and presence around an ever-changing urban environment is an important referencing item.

Fogelson, Robert M. “Chapter 1 - The Business District: Downtown in the late 19th Century.” Downtown: Its Rise and Fall, 1880-1950. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001. 9-43. [cr]

FRAME - Business: Fogelson’s book outlines the development of the city center in America. He gives perspective on the challenges facing urban development in Philadelphia and other cities as well as the impact of changing attitudes on that development through the 19th and 20th Centuries.
POINT: Chapter 1 illustrates the appearance of the concept of “Downtown” in American vocabulary late in the 19th Century. In Philadelphia, it soon became synonymous with City Hall, Wanamaker’s, and bustling businesses. Fogelson reviews the contemporary literature and commentary of the day to interpret the socio-economic factors that drive change in the use of urban properties in Philadelphia and other cities through the remainder of the 19th Century. Some of these factors include political infighting, development of transportation networks and the ongoing evolution of neighborhoods, sometimes from residential to commercial uses. This is evidenced in the lobbying that brought Philadelphia’s City Hall and subsequently greater commercial presence to the comparatively out of the way Penn Square district, away from the old business center near Independence and Washington Squares.

Satterthwaite, Ann. “Chapter 1: Shopping Through the Ages.” Going Shopping. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001. 8-63. [cr]

FRAME - Retail: Satterthwaite discusses the history of shopping from early civilizations through to the 20th Century. She reveals shopping as a reflection of our society and highlights the impact shopping has on the evolution of our communities.
POINT: Until recent history, shopping was seen as a necessary evil, with the merchant trade given little respect. As personal wealth has increased in recent centuries and the ‘consumer culture’ blossomed, small shops, periodic market fairs and roving merchants have given way to larger and more centralized retail outlets and the evolution of retail outlets as destinations in their own right. This trend is evidenced in Philadelphia from the transition from the roving tradesmen of the 17th Century to a purpose-built market on High Street in the 18th Century, the lavish downtown Wanamaker’s department store 19th Century. Even with the tourist-filled Reading Terminal Market of today, the mystique of traveling downtown couldn’t stop the 20th Century exodus of retailers from the cities, as they fled urban decay in search of their customers in the suburbs. The trend in the 21st Century is toward continued growth of suburban retailers and the development of discount and warehouse stores.

Thomas, George E. Introduction. University of Pennsylvania. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002. 1-25. [cr]

FRAME - Education: George Thomas documents the architectural history and evolution of the University of Pennsylvania and its surroundings. The Introduction provides a brief history of the university and the evolution of its existing campus.
POINT: Founded by Quakers, the University was unique in its day for its freedom from ecumenical ties. The University solidified its position in the city as a place open to all by including representatives of each of Philadelphia’s major faiths on its board and setting up shop in a converted, non-traditional chapel. The University’s size and location changed throughout the years following the Revolutionary and Civil Wars. On settling in West Philadelphia, Penn developed in a way that reflected its locale through the work of local architects and use of local materials. Throughout the late 19th Century, development of the current campus followed cultural trends of the day emphasizing student amenities such as a student union, dormitories and football stadium. The economic pinch of the Depression helped stave off radical changes to the campus, allowing existing structures to provide visual counterpoint to the International Style and other contemporary buildings added in the 20th Century.

Schweitzer, Mary M. (2003, Summer) "The Spatial Organization of Federalist Philadelphia, 1790." Journal of Interdisciplinary History, XXIV, Article 1. [dom]

This article dealt with the social and spatial makeup of Philadelphia during the years immediately after the American Revolution. The main aim of the article was to connect urban history and sociology. The author did so by explaining the socio-economic and spatial makeup of the early city and how that urban milieu pertains to the growth of the metropolis in the nineteenth century. By using period maps and social data from the period, the author was able to map out where certain people lived according to their economic standings; she concluded that since early Philadelphia was largely a mercantilist trading center, the population density distribution was not close to the center of the city and that in fact early Philadelphia had a more or less uniform population distribution; a more dense city center would only come about when industrialization came. As in most other American cities, the waterfront was commercial and thus populated by a vast array of professions and ethnic groups. The wealthy remained to the south and west of that area while the poorer peoples remained on the periphery of the center.

I chose this article after seeing the rather compelling diagrams throughout; one showing the population distribution of the various incomes and professions while another went further to map out exactly where people of certain professions lived. I found these diagrams so compelling because the article was able to inform me exactly where each type of person lived, almost down to a house-by-house basis. Through this, one can conjecture even what types of dwellings existed on these spots and thus it is possible to paint a picture of what the city might looked like in 1790. This article is applicable for those wanting to do a sport-by-spot analysis of the city's architectural remains in terms of foundations and parts of remaining structures. From a more sociologic view, one could gain an appreciation of how society interacted in pre-industrial Philadelphia. Even beyond that, looking at the scale of diversity that existed in a rather small space; one can gain a valuable perspective when looking at today's large yet largely segregated cities in America.

Spirn, Anne Whiston. (2005) Restoring Mill Creek: Landscape Literacy, Environmental Justice and City Planning and Design, Landscape Research, 30(3) pp. 395-413. [af]

(a) Spirn has done long-term research on the Mill Creek neighborhood from the perspective of landscape design.  She discusses her efforts to bring about a better plan for the neighborhood, including an extensive program to educate Mill Creek community members in landscape literacy.
 
(b) What was once a stream (the Mill Creek) is now an underground pipe 20 ft. in diameter that is far too small to carry the amount of wastewater flowing to the Schuylkill River.  This creates an unsanitary and undesirable swath of land and many buildings in the area stand vacant, contributing to a sense of shame in local residents.  She describes a plan developed with the help of colleagues and students to create a green, undeveloped ribbon of land along the former Mill Creek that would include a series of overflow basins to catch floodwaters.  This plan was initially ignored by city planners but after several years of successful public education through a program at a Mill Creek middle school it gained local, regional and national attention as well as temporary support from city officials. 
 
Spirn has found that conditions similar to those existing in the Mill Creek neighborhood can be found in many American cities and correcting these problems is essential to righting social wrongs.  In conjunction with that, educating local populations about their landscapes fosters a sense of pride, place, and empowerment in shaping their surroundings. 

Rodin, Judith. (2005) The 21st Century Urban University, Journal of the American Planning Association, 71(3) pp. 237-249. [af]

(a) Rodin has been the President of the University of Pennsylvania for the last ten years and describes a shift in the administrations attitude toward the surrounding community of University City, and details policy changes developed in an effort at revitalization.  She provides a brief history of the role of the university in the community, reasoning behind policy changes, and statistics that point to change in University City.
 
(b) The recent university efforts at revitalizing University City were spurned by a realization that its academic success depends on having a supportive environment in which to work and a safe, healthy neighborhood.  Penn's efforts at community revitalization have included hiring more safety and cleaning personnel and installing better lighting on the streets, buying and refurbishing key properties and subsidizing private investment in neighborhoods, large-scale development of commercial areas, supporting local businesses by demanding that they be awarded a portion of university contracts, and improving public schools.  The university has sought the guidance of the School of Education and the School of Design in developing plans for these projects.  The results of this initiative have been significant and the project is considered to be quite successful.  Rodin suggests that the University of Pennsylvania's community revitalization program can be used as a model for other colleges and universities with urban locations.


COMBINED or N.D.

National Park Service, "General Management Plan, Independence National Historic Park"
http://www.nps.gov/inde/pphtml/documents.html [cpl]

The management plan begins with the concept of how the preservationist of 1945 envisioned the park's evolution transitioning flawlessly to a detailed description of what the park looks like and the consequences of those conditions.

The publication details the success and failures of the general plan and how the knowledge gained has lead to new and improved provisions for the management of Independence National Park.

Philadelphia Museum of Art, "History of the Museum,"
http://www.philamuseum.org/information/history/index.shtml [cpl]

The publication offers an incitefull chronological and comprehensive account of the history of the museum. It introduces the museums history with the conception of the idea for the museum leading to the location, architects, building design, the acquisition of collections through the economic woes and surpluses.

"All Aboard for Philadelphia." video. The Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 1995. [cab]

Contesta, David R. Suburb in the City: Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia 1850-1990. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1992. [cab]

Speirs, Frederic W. The Street Railway System of Philadelphia Its History and Present Condition. Ed. Herbert B. Adams. New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1973. [cab]

Cox, Harold. The Road from Upper Darby. Forty Fort: Jack May, 1967. [cab]

Rosenthal, Leon S. A History of Philadelphia's University City. Philadelphia: The West Philadelphia Corporation, 1963. [cab]

[In West Philadelphia} there were inhabitants before
the the first bridge was built.
There were country houses on this side of the river
and a cluster of businesses such as taverns and
tradesmen near the Schuylkill River. The first bridge
was completed in 1805. It spanned the Schuylkill
connecting Market street with Market street, and
allowed for travel without the danger of the ferry.
The first omnibus line was established in the city in
1833. There may have been some service to West
Philadelphia by the early 1850's, but there was no
regular service until 1860. As transportation became
more regular to West Philadelphia the population grew,
but development of the area was still spotty past
41st street until the completion of the elevated line
in 1907 allowed for a more through development. The
loop that the trolleys currently make under city hall
was being constructed around the same time so that
business men could have been carried as far as 13th
street by trolley when it was completed.



rdgs1.html; last rev. = 19 sept. 05 jc