Topics in Modern Planning:
"The European Metropolis"
(Cities 227)
Growth and Structure of Cities Program

Carola Hein
Bryn Mawr College
Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, USA
Spring 2001


Taking European cities as an example, we will examine the distinct characters of both large and small cities. The course will try to pin down the architectural and urban particularities of these cities and to define their foundations in history, politics, economics, culture, urban planning and building laws. It will look particularly at the different histories of national intervention and local initiatives, as these gain new importance in regard to European unification. While this course concentrates on Europe, the analysis is a backdrop for the evaluation of American cities.

This course requires active class participation and reading. The majority of the visual material will not be readily available outside the lectures. The major writing assignment will be a long paper (2500-3000 words) (40% of final grade) due at the end of the semester. In the 8th week, you will be asked to submit a proposal for this paper including a central question, outline and preliminary bibliography (about 1000 words) (10%). Three smaller assignments will be given in the first half of the course (20%). These should be done as group projects. All these should be submitted in a timely fashion.

In addition, every student will write a response/essay on lectures and readings of one week in the class (about 1000 words) (10%). Each week will be assigned to one student, who will present the response in class. Lectures will be held in general on Monday, discussions on Wednesday.

You should buy the required books. These books and some other major texts are available on reserve or e-reserve.



Week 1:   What is Europe? What is a Metropolis?
(Jan. 22, 24)

Preliminary Thoughts and Personal Impressions - Cities and Events

I. The Great Metropolis in Western Europe

Week 2:   Paris - The Center of Continental Europe
(Jan. 29, 31)

Required reading:
Olsen:  (You will be required to read the complete text until week 6. You can either read the book as an entity or read the chapters relevant to the lectures.)

Week 3:   Paris - The Metropolis of Europe - Center and Periphery. The ìGrands Projectsî and the Banlieue
(Feb. 5, 7)

Required reading:
Finish:  Sutcliffe

Assignment I for class 4/2 (Feb. 14):
ìPreconceived Notions of European Nations, Cities and Places.î
Choose two or three examples, write a short paper and discuss in class

Week 4:   London - From the Capital of the Commonwealth to the Metropolis of Liberalism
(Feb. 12, 14)

Required reading:
Olsen, parts on London;
Start:  Hall, Urban and Regional Planning

Week 5:   London - Urban Renewal as a Financial Center and Global City
(Feb. 19, 21)

Required reading:
Finish:  Hall, Urban and Regional Planning

Assignment II for class 6/2 (Feb. 28):
Compare two European cities in regard to their internet presentations, write a short paper and discuss in class.

Week 6:   Berlin - Metropolis of the 1920ís and Capital of the Cold War
(Feb. 26, 28)

Required reading:
Hall, Cities in Civilization p. 239-278, p. 377-395

Week 7:   Berlin - A Bridge between East and West?/ Recent Developments in Berlin
(March 5, 7)

Required reading:
Kleihues/Rathgeber (including):
  • Schmidt, Hartwig. "Architecture and Urban Planning 1850-1914," p. 129-144;
  • Worbs, Dietrich. "The Berlin ìMietskaserneî and Its Reforms," p. 145-158;
  • Lampugnani, Vittorio. "Modernism and the Metropolis: Plans for Central Berlin 1910-41," p. 249-263;
  • Kleihues, Josef Paul. "From the Destruction to the Critical Reconstruction of the City: Urban Design in Berlin after 1945," p. 395-409;
  • Rumpf, Peter. "In Dialogue with Witnesses to the Past: The Architecture of West Berlin after 1945," p. 423-479;
  • Mnninger, Michael. "Competition of the Fragments: Challenges for Tomorrow¥s Berlin," p. 475-479.

Assignment III for class 9/2 (March 21):
Draw a map of a European city or city part to the scale of a section of Philadelphia. Compare.
Present and discuss in class

Week 8:  Spring Break

Week 9:   Brussels ñ Urban Destruction and Opposition Movements
(March 19, 21)

Required reading:
All in Appleyard:
  • Brasseur, Nicole. "An Urban Renovation Experience in the Center of Brussels: The Manhattan Plan," p. 98-132;
  • Schoonbrodt, RenÈ. "ARAU (Atelier de Recherche et d¥Action Urbaine): Balance and Prospects after Five Years¥ Struggle," p. 126-132;
  • Strauven, Francis. "Brussels: Urban Transformations since the Eighteenth Century," p. 104-126.

II.   Centers in Europe's Periphery

Week 10:   Cities in Central Europe/Vienna - Center of Eastern Europe
(March 26, 28)

Required reading:
Olsen, parts on Vienna;
All in Blau,
  • Blau, Eve. "The City as Protagonist: Architecture and the Cultures of Central Europe," p. 11-24;
  • Maier, Charles. "City, Empire, and Imperial Aftermath: Contending Contexts for the Urban Vision," p. 25-42;
  • Cs·ky, Moritz. "Multicultural Communities: Tensions and Qualities, The Example of Central Europe," p. 43-56.
March 26: Hand in abstract for final paper.

Week 11:   Cities in the European South
(April 2, 4)

Required reading:
Mackay, David. "The Early Romantics: A Search for Identity in the Past," in Mackay David. Modern Architecture in Barcelona, The Anglo-Catalan Society, 1985, p. 1-12

Week 12:   Cities in the European North (April 9, 11)

Required reading:
Hall, Cities in Civilization, p. 842-887

Week 13:   Capital City Planning and Visions for the Capital of Europe/ Euralille: A Self-made Urban Future between London, Paris and Brussels - And Other Local Initiatives
(April 16,18)

Required reading:
Hein, Carola. "European Unification and the Planning Issue," in Comprehensive Urban Studies, n. 59, 1996

Week 14:   European Unification as a Motor For City and Regional Development as well as Networking
(April 23, 25)

Required reading:
Hohenberg, p. 1-21;
Kunzmann, Klaus. "The Future of the City Region in Europe," in Bosma, Koos, Hellinga, Helga, Mastering the City, NAI [Netherlands], p. 15-29

McDonogh, Gary. "The Face Behind the Door: European Integration, Immigration and Identity," in Wilson, Thomas M.; Smith, M. Estelle, Cultural Change and the New Europe, Westview Press, San Francisco, Oxford, 1993, p. 143-165.

April 23:   Hand in final paper

Week 15:   Summary
(April 30, May 2)


  1. Three small assignments to be done in groups (10%)
  2. Proposal for term paper due at the beginning of the class on March 26th (10%). See topics (about 1000 words).
  3. Final paper due at the beginning of the class on April 23 (40%):  This should be 2500 to 3000 words plus footnotes and bibliography.
  4. Resume of lectures and readings of one week in the class (10%):   About 1000 words.

Each student will prepare a term work or paper on one of the following topics:

  1. A paper discussing the effects of international exhibitions or Olympics on America, its culture, economics and politics in general, its architecture and urban culture in particular.

  2. Choose one of the novels mentioned below, or a similar novel, discuss its architectural and urban context.
    • Calvino, Italo, Invisible Cities, Harcourt Brace, 1974
    • Heine, Heinrich, Deutschland: A Winter¥s Tale, Bilingual Edition, Angel Books, London, 1986
    • Orwell, George, Down and Out in Paris and London, Harcourt Brace, 1983 (first published in 1933)
    • Tomasi di Lampedusa, Giuseppe, The Leopard, Pantheon Books, 1991
    • Zola, Emile, The Ladies¥ Paradise, Oxford University Press, 1998

  3. You may propose a topic of your own choice after browsing through the reserve and the library. Consult with Carola Hein early in the semester


Required Reading (on reserve)

Appleyard, Donald
The Conservation of European Cities
MIT Press, 1979

Blau, Eve; Platzer, Monika (Ed.)
Shaping the Great City
Prestel, 1999

Bosma, Koos; Hellinga, Helga (Ed.)
Mastering the City
NAI [Netherlands], 1997

Hall, Peter
Urban and Regional Planning
Routledge, 1992

Hall, Peter
Cities in Civilization
Pantheon Books, 1998

Hein, Carola
"European Unification and the Planning Issue," in Comprehensive Urban Studies, n 59, 1996

Hohenberg, Paul, Lees Lynn
The Making of Urban Europe, 1000-1994
Harvard University Press, 1995

Kleihues, Josef Paul; Rathgeber, Christine
Berlin-New York, Like and Unlike
Rizzoli, 1993

Newman, Peter; Thornley Andy
Urban Planning in Europe
Routledge 1996

Olsen, Donald J.
The City as a Work of Art, London, Paris, Vienna
Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1988

Sutcliffe, Anthony
Paris: An Architectural History
Yale University, 1996

Further Recommendations for Background Reading and Reference:

Barker, Felix; Hyde, Ralph
London As It Might Have Been
John Murray, 1982

Benevolo, Leonardo
The History of the City
MIT Press, 1980

Braunfels, Wolfgang
Urban Design in Western Europe
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988

Cohen, Jean-Louis
Scenes of the World to Come
Canadian Center for Architecture, 1995

Evenson, Norma
Paris, a Century of Change
Yale University Press, 1979 (Out of Print)

Euralille: The Making of a New City Center
Birkhuser, 1996

Hall, Peter
Cities of Tomorrow
Blackwell, 1996

Jodidio, Philip
Contemporary European Architects
Taschen, 1998

King, Anthony D.
Global Cities: Post-Imperialism and the Internationalisation of London
Routledge, 1990

King, Anthony D.
Culture, Globalization and the World-System
University of Minnesota Press, 1997

Kostof, Spiro
The City Assembled
Thames and Hudson, 1992

Kostof, Spiro
The City Shaped
Bulfinch, 1999

Mattie, Eric
World¥s Fairs
Princeton Architectural Press, 1998

Olsen, Donald J.
Town Planning in London
Yale University Press, 1964

Pevsner, Nikolaus
An Outline of European Architecture
Penguin Books, 1990

Sassen, Saskia
Global Cities
Princeton, 1991

Sutcliffe, Anthony
British Town Planning, The Formative Years
Leicester University Press, 1981

Sutcliffe, Anthony
Metropolis 1890-1940
University of Chicago Press, 1984

Tzonis, Alexander; Lefaivre, Liane
Architecture in Europe since 1968
Thames and Hudson, 1992

Ward, Stephen
Selling Places
E+FN Spon, 1998

Background Reading in the Field of Literature:

Calvino, Italo
Invisible Cities
Harcourt Brace, 1974

Heine, Heinrich
Deutschland: A Winter¥s Tale, Bilingual Edition
Angel Books, 1986

Orwell, George
Down and Out in Paris and London
Harcourt Brace, 1983 (first published in 1933)

Tomasi di Lampedusa, Giuseppe
The Leopard
Pantheon Books, 1991

Schuiten, FranÁois; Peeters, Benoît
Casterman, 1992 (in French)

Zola, Emile
The Ladies¥ Paradise
Oxford University Press, 1998