City 03-377
RR1's

Carl W. Condit, The Rise of the Skyscraper (Chicago, 1952).
-- Though this text does not specifically discuss the morphology of the American downtown, it discusses one of the more important architectural aspects, that of skyscrapers. The need for space downtown along with new materials and technology allowed for the skyscraper to become somewhat of a downtown vernacular, which has characterized downtown city form since its inception. [jt]

HE2781 C5 C63
Carl W. Condit, The railroad and the city : a technological and urbanistic history of
Cincinnati
. (Columbus, 1977)
-- The effects of the railroad on the growth of Cincinnatti. [rad]

L.R. Ford, Cities and Buildings, (Baltimore, 1994). Chapters 1-3 & 6.[lw]

Larry Ford, America's New Downtowns, (Baltimore, 2003).
-- This text specifically deals with the need for downtown revitalization because of the creation of the CBD and the shift of residential to the suburbs. It addresses the need for spatial organization in our downtowns to bring our city centers back to their glory.[jt]

Larry Ford. America's New Downtowns: Revitalization or Reinvention? (Baltimore 2003), 44-55.
-- This part of the book outlines the general development of the early American downtown, through its six stages of evolution, and it also serves to illustrate its European antecedents as well the role of transportation, cultural values, and politics and economics in shaping the downtown landscape.[sah]

Larry R. Ford, America's New Downtowns: Revitalization or Reinvention? (Baltimore, 2003).
-- Ford's book is a comparative study which asks whether there ever was a "Golden Age" of Downtowns. He focuses on 16 cities and in making comparisons between past and present downtowns, the book could be a valuable source for information to the origins of the downtown. [st]

Larry Ford, America's New Downtowns: Revitalization or Reinvention? (Baltimore, 2003).
-- This text explores the evolution of downtown perceptions, functionality, and spatial organization throughout the 19th century. [lam]

Ford, Larry. America's new downtowns : revitalization or reinvention? Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. [ak]

Constance McLaughlin Green, The Rise of Urban America (London, 1966).
-- This text gives a historical context to the growth and evolution of American cities over time. It provides an overview of America's history which contributed and affected the form the city took.[jt]

Robert E. Lang, Edgeless Cities, (Washington D.C., 2003).
-- This text is more contemporary and addresses issues of suburban sprawl and the creation of "edgeless cities" which have occurred due to transportation and infrastructure. Questions are raised concerning the shift of downtown to a business district and less of a city center, but also the gradual shift of business to the suburbs and in between. We must ask ourselves what is going to be left in our downtowns.[jt]

Michael Johns, Moment of Grace: the American City in the 1950s (Berkeley, 2003).
-- Focusing on a specific era, this text combines eclectic sources to provide a vivid picture of our cities in the 1950s. The issues of the rush to suburbia and civil rights clue us in on reasons for change in our downtowns today. [jt]

Richard W. Longstreth, City Center to Regional Mall: Architecture, the Automobile, and Retailing in Los Angeles, 1920-1950 (Cambridge, 1998).
-- Longstreth's book deals specifically with Los Angeles and how it began as a typical city center of commerce and has evolved into a business district. As the automobile transformed Los Angeles into a car-culture, retail began to spread away from the city center. This caused less people to drive into the city for shopping needs and instead led to the "slumming" of the city center that was only utilized during business hours. [jt]

Longstreth, Richard W. The Buildings of Main Street: a guide to American commercial architecture (Walnut Creek, CA. 2000) [sr]

John William Reps. Cities of the Mississippi: Nineteenth-century Images of Urban Development (Columbia, Mo., 1994).
-- This book contains depictions of cities along the Mississippi river in the nineteenth century by those who did so for the large majority of the population back then; it also explores the development of these early towns and their expanding networks. [sah]

Daniel H. Burnham and Edward H. Bennett, "The Plan of Chicago by Daniel H. Burnham and Edward H. Bennett: Cartographic and Historical Perspectives," in Envisioning the City : Six Studies in Urban Cartography, ed. David Buisseret (Chicago, 1998), 147-172.
-- This article follows the history of early urban planning in Chicago, as well as that planned and implemented after the Chicago Fire of 1871; it also examines early Chicago cartography and how to look at different elements using early maps as a tool.[sah]

Jon C. Teaford. The Twentieth-century American City (Baltimore, 1993), 1-30.
-- These pages in the book cover perceptions of urban problems and a general development of the early American downtown, in relation to social, political, and economic issues.[sah]

Robert M. Fogelson. Downtown: Its Rise and Fall, 1880-1950 (New Haven, Ct., 2001), 9-43.
-- These pages examine the creation of the central business district, transportation and building-height limitation concerns, as well as the failed attempts to keep the downtown thriving.[sah]

Robert M. Fogelson. The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850-1930 (Cambridge, 1967),
-- This book follows the evolution of Los Angeles from Mexican village to American town and beyond, to the point of rejection of the city in favor of the suburbs.[sah]

Robert M. Fogelson, The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850-1930 (Cambridge, 1967).
-- By learning about a critical period in Los Angeles' urbanization process, we can learn about specific issues that were faced during the emergence of the Downtown. Also, having such a detailed and focused work can help us take an even closer look. [st]

Robert M Fogelson, Downtown: Its Rise and Fall, 1880-1950 (New Haven, 2001).
-- This book provides a history of downtown development in the 19th and 20th centuries as it relates to major technological and political developments such as transportation evolution, world wars, and height buildings. [lam]

Robert M. Fogelson, Downtown: Its Rise and Fall, 1880-1950 (New Haven, 2001).
-- This book explores how and why the notion of "downtown" came about. It could help us to explore the perceptions of the people of the city as well as what kinds of ideas they had, what decisions they made etc
Relevant Chapters within the book:
1) The Business District: Downtown in the Late Nineteenth Century, p. 9
2) Derailing the Subways: The Politics of Rapid Transit 44
3) The Sacred Skyline: The Battle over Height Limits 112 [st]

Fogelson, Robert. Downtown : its rise and fall, 1880-1950. New Haven : Yale University Press, c2001. [ak]

Fogelson, Robert. Downtown: Its Rise and Fall:1880-1950 (New Haven, 2001) 1

Daniel Bluestone, "'The Pushcart Evil': Peddlers, Merchants, and New York City's Streets, 1890-1940" in David Ward and Oliver Zunz (eds), The landscape of modernity: New York City, 1900-1940, (New York, 1992), 287-312.
-- "Pushcart Evil" seems to be about the contestation of street space between merchants and peddlers. [lw]

M. Domosh, "The feminized retail landscape: gender, ideology and consumer culture in 19th century New York City", in Wrigley, N and Lowe, M. (eds) Retailing, Consumption and Capital: Towards the New Retail Geography, pp. 257-70.
-- Domosh's reading may help us to understand the development of retail and consumer culture in New York City, which may apply to other cities like Boston and Philadelphia. The contestation of urban space (especially street space), the development of technology (especially lighting) and the development of retail and department stores probably had a great impact on the appearance of commercial streets, how they were experienced and why they changed in 19th century American cities.[lw]

P. Goheen, "Public space and the geography of the modern city," Progress in Human Geography, 22 (4), pp 479-96.[lw]

D. Holdsworth, "Morphological change in Lower Manhattan, New York, 1893-1920," in J.W.R. Whitehand and P.J. Larkham (eds) Urban Landscapes: International Perspectives, (114-29).[lw]

D. Nye, Electrifying America: Social Meanings of a New Technology, 1880-1940 (Cambridge, 1990).[lw]

W.R. Taylor, In Pursuit of Gotham: Culture and Commerce in New York, (New York, 1992).[lw]

Paul Erling Groth, Living downtown : the history of residential hotels in the United States (Berkeley, 1994)
-- Covers the time period of 1880-1930, taking a look at residential hates, from luxurious palace hotels to single-room-occupancy dwellings for the poor. [st]

Jessica Sewell, "Gender, Imagination, and Experience in the Early-Twentieth-Century American Downtown," in Everyday America : cultural landscape studies after J.B. Jackson, eds. Chris Wilson and Paul Groth (Berkeley, 2003), 237. [st]

Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, Tridib Banerjee, Urban Design Downtown: Poetics and Politics of Form (Berkeley, 1998)
-- Takes a historical approach to the corporate downtown and its social dilemmas and contradictions. [st]

Ann Cook, City Life, 1865-1900: Views of Urban America (New York, 1973).
-- This text explores social conditions in American downtowns within the last 140 years and how residents influenced urban change. [lam]

Raymond A Mohl, The Making of Urban America (Wilmington, 1988).
-- This text provides an historical account of urban development in the last centuries and a description of influential factors. [lam]

Neal R Peirce, Breakthroughs: Re-creating the American City (New Brunswick, 1993).
-- The authors of this text describe multiple urban renewal projects which focus on empowerment and social responsibility. [lam]

David Ward, Poverty, Ethnicity, and the American City, 1840-1925: Changing Conceptions of the Slum and the Ghetto (New York, 1989).
-- This book seems to explore underprivileged areas in American cities where ethnic minorities and those of low income cluster. [lam]

Shields, Martin. Welcome back downtown : a guide to revitalizing Pennsylvania's small downtowns. Harrisburg, PA: Center for Rural Pennsylvania, [2002] [ak]

Delaware County Planning Department. Making commercial strips work : an urban design study. Media, Pa: The Dept., 1976. [ak]

Redstone, Louis G. The new downtowns : rebuilding business districts. Malabar, Fla: R.E. Krieger, 1983, c1976. [ak]

Philip Nobel. "The Downtown Culture Derby Begins." The New York Times. August 31, 2003: pAR1(L) column 01 (53). [ak]

Bernard J Frieden; Lynne B Sagalyn. Downtown, Inc: how America rebuilds cities. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1989. [ak]

Cohen, L. "Is there an Urban history of consumption?" Journal of Urban History v. 29 no.2 (Jan 2003): 87-106 [sr]

Crossick, Geoffrey. Cathedrals of Consumption: the European Department Store (Brookfield, VT. 1999) [sr]

Mayo, James M. The American Grocery Store: the business evolution of an architectural space (Westport, CT. 1993) 43 [sr]

Schmeiken, James. The British Market Hall a Social and Architectural History. (New Haven, 1999) 160-201 [sr]

HD5325 R2 1877:
David R. Stowell. Streets, Railroads, and the Great Strike of 1877. (Chicago, 1999)
-- Discusses Encroachment of Railroads on Urban Fabric and Changing Nature of Labor, Specifically in Chicago c. 1877.

HE2771 N7 B4
Lee Benson, Merchants, farmers & railroads; railroad regulation and New York politics. (Cambridge, 1955)
-- 1850-1887 ­ Railroad Regulation in New York. Mostly about rural areas, but some information about the effect on Urban Life.[rad]

F158.5 B82
Francis Burke Brandt, Byways and Boulevards in and About Historic Philadelphia.
(Philadelphia, 1925)
-- A tour of Philadelphia ­ Mostly "important" stuff but closer inspection might yield more pertinent info.[rad]

F158.5 H92
Grace Humphrey. Father Takes Us to Philadelphia. (Philadelphia, 1929)
-- A portrait of Philadelphia in 1905, describing the visit of a midwestern family [rad]

F158.5 F35
Federal Writers' Project. Philadelphia, a Guide to the Nation's Birthplace. (Phil. 1937)
-- A Writer's Project guide to Philadelphia, showing walks and other historic information ­ a good historical reference volume of the city. [rad]

F158.5 S43
R.C. Smith. In and Out of Town. (Boston, 1970)
-- A Collection of short stories, mostly anecdotes about Philadelphia. Includes some very good descriptions of some parts of the city (particularly 31-34;40-43;60-65) [rad]


03-377/rr.html; last rev. 10 Sept. 03