Ancient Greece – Final Exam Review

Identifications:

You should be prepared to give a 3-4 sentence identification of any of the following.

PEOPLE

THINGS

Aeschylus

Agesilaos

Archon

Areopagus

Agiads

Alcibiades

aretê

Battle of Chaeronea

Alcmaeonids

Alcman

Battle of Hysiai

Battle of Leuctra

Alexander the Great

Antiphon

Battle of Marathon

Battle of Thermopylae

Archilochus

Aristagoras of Miletus

Boule

cleruchy

Aristides

Aristophanes

decarchy

Delian League

Bacchiads

Cimon

deme

Ecclesia

Cleisthenes of Athens

Cleisthenes of Sicyon

Eleusinian Mysteries

emporia

Cleomenes

Cleon

Four Hundred

Gerousia

Critias

Croesus

Great Rhetra

harmost

Cylon

Cypselus

hectemoroi

herm

Cyrus

Cyrus

hetaireiai

Hippeis

Demaratus

Demosthenes

hoplite warfare

King's Peace

Dion

Dionysius the Elder

League of Corinth

Long Walls of Athens

Dionysius the Younger

Draco

Marathon

Olympic games

Empedokles

Epaminondas

Oracle of Delphi

ostracism

Ephialtes

Epimenides

Peloponnesian League

Pentacosiomedimnoi

Euripides

Eurypontids

phoros

Sacred Band

Gorgias

Gyges

Sacred Wars

Second Athenian League

Harmodius & Aristogeiton

Heinrich Schliemann

sophists

stasis

Heraclids

Hesiod

Thermopylae

Thetes

Hippias and Hipparchus

Homer

Thirty Tyrants

timê

Isagoras

Isocrates

tribe

trittyes

Lycurgus

Lysander

xenia

Zeugitai

Nicias

Pericles

 

 

Pheidon

Phillip II

 

 

Pisistratus

Plato

 

 

Polykrates

Protagoras

 

 

Solon

Sophocles

 

 

Themistokles

Theognis

 

 

Theramenes

Theseus

 

 

Tissaphernes

Tyrtaeus

 

 

 

You should also be prepared to locate any of the following places on a map of the Mediterranean.

 

Aegina

Amphipolis

Arcadia

Argos

Athens

Boeotia

Byzantium

Carthage

Chalkidike

Chios

Corcyra

Corinth

Crete

Cyprus

Cyrene

Euboea

Ionia

Lesbos

Macedonia

Mantinea

Megara

Melos

Messenia

Miletus

Mycenae

Mytilene

Naukratis

Olynthus

Orchomenos

Pherae

Phocis

Potidea

Pylos

Salamis

Samos

Sicily

Sicyon

Sparta

Syracuse

Tarentum

Thebes

Thespiae

Thessaly

Thurii

 

Essay Questions:

 

1.        For to the people I gave so much honor as is sufficient, neither diminishing their timê nor adding to it in profusion. As for those who held power and were admired for their wealth, I saw to it that they, also, had nothing shameful.  I took my stand, covering both in the protection of my mighty shield, nor did I allow either side to win unjustly. (Solon, fr. 5)

 

Explain how Solon¹s reforms provided a compromise between the factions in Athens.  What advantage did each group obtain?  What did each have to give up?  In what ways did Solon¹s reforms fail to resolve the problems of Athens?

 

  1. How do the "wooden walls" of the Delphic Oracle (Hdt. VII.140-143) define the polis of the Athenians?  Discuss at least three examples in which the "wooden walls" are more significant than the walls of the city itself.

 

  1. What are the common elements of Greek narratives of colonization?  Why do these elements appear in so many colonization stories?  What is the significance and function of these elements?  Use at least three stories of colonization as examples to make your points.

 

  1. In Pericles' funeral oration (Th. 2.45.2), Pericles claims that the greatest glory is for the woman "who is least talked about among the men whether for good or for bad."  What does this statement show about the changing status of women in Athenian society?  What factors influenced this change of status?

 

  1. What can the tales of the birth of a leader tell the modern reader about how that leader was perceived  by his contemporaries?  What common elements in the stories provide clues?  Explain with regard to at least two such stories found in Herodotus or other sources.

 

  1. Discuss how innovations in military technology or tactics changed the socio-political and economic situations of Greece in at least three cases.

 

  1. What roles did women play in Spartan society?  What do the conflicting sources have to say about Spartan women?

 

  1. But in Ionia and many other regions where they live under foreign sway, it [love of youths] is counted a disgrace. Foreigners hold this thing, and all training in philosophy and sports, to be disgraceful, because of their despotic government; since, I presume, it is not to the interest of their despots to have lofty notions engendered in their subjects, or any strong friendships and communions; all of which Love is pre-eminently apt to create. It is a lesson that our tyrants learnt by experience; for Aristogeiton's love and Harmodius's friendship grew to be so steadfast that it wrecked their power. Thus where it was held a disgrace to gratify one's lover, the tradition is due to the evil ways of those who made such a law-- that is, to the encroachments of the rulers and to the cowardice of the ruled.

 

In Plato's Symposium (182bd), one character uses the example of Harmodius and Aristogeiton to explain why the love of youths is discouraged in cities under tyrants' control. Why might this be an effective argument for his Athenian audience? How does this passage reflect the different versions of the story found in Thucydides, Herodotus, and the Harmodius skolion (Dear Harmodios, surely you have not perished.  No, they say, you live in the blessed islands where Achilles the swift of foot, and Tydeus' son, Diomedes, are said to have gone)?

 

  1. Thucydides describes the symptoms of the plague in Athens in vivid and horrifying detail (Th. 2.49 ff.), but he also uses the idea of disease to describe the moral conditions of Greek cities during the war.  Describe the symptoms of this moral disease and discuss some of its worst outbreaks.

 

  1. Why did the Greeks colonize?  What conditions, economic, social, and political, led to the process of colonization in the Archaic period?

 

  1. Using at least three examples from comedies or tragedies, explain the advantages and disadvantages of using dramatic sources as historical evidence.  How does such evidence differ from that of a historical chronicle such as Thucydides or Diodorus Siculus in scope, detail, or credibility?

 

  1. How did the Spartans develop hoplite warfare to the peak that they did?  How did the reforms of ŒLycurgus¹ and the social customs of Sparta contribute to its military prowess?  What were the limitations of the Spartan system?

 

  1. Although tales of the Dorian invasion or the Ionian migration are difficult to support archaeologically, they were nonetheless important to the ancient Greeks. Discuss at least three examples in which notions of ethnic identity shaped the events of history we have discussed in class.

 

  1. In Herodotus III.80ff.,  the Persians debating the best form of government give speeches that put forth the advantages and disadvantages of monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy.  Briefly cite examples from Greek history both before and after the Persian Wars that illustrate these advantages and disadvantages.

 

  1. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Herodotus or Thucydides or Plutarch or Xenophon or the Aristotelian Athenian Constituition as a source for historical information.

 

  1. What impact did the expansion of trade with the Near East and the Italian peninsula have on the development of the Greek polis?

 

  1. How does the difference between the poetry of Alcman and the poetry of Tyrtaeus reflect the changes in Spartan society between the times of those poets?

 

  1. Personal relationships (friendship, hatred, romance, marriage, etc.) between prominent individuals played an important part in politics within the polis and between states.  Describe the effects of at least three such personal relationships from different periods in Greek history.

 

  1. What narrative pattern do the tales of tyrants, in Herodotus and elsewhere, display?  What does this pattern reveal about the way in which the Greeks regarded absolute rulers?  Use examples from stories of at least two tyrants.  How does Herodotus¹ story of Deioces provide a contrast?

 

  1. How did the reforms of Cleisthenes the Athenian differ from the reforms of his grandfather from Sicyon?  What effects did these reforms have within the society of the polis and in the polis' relations with other states?

 

  1. What does the appearance and positioning of monumental temples in the Archaic period reveal about the development of the Greek polis?

 

  1. What role did PanHellenic sanctuaries such as Delphi and Olympia play in the political and social history of Greece?  Discuss their significance using examples from at least three situations.

 

  1. According to Hesiod (Works and Days, ll. 11-24), competition is a fundamental element of Greek culture.  Discuss at least three examples in which competition shaped historical events that we have discussed in class. 

 

  1. The Peloponnesian War pitted Athens' naval power against the Spartan land empire.  What strengths and weaknesses of naval and land empires were revealed during and after the Peloponnesian War?

 

  1. Alcibiades' speech (in Th. 6.15-18) attempts to justify his personal extravagances to the people of Athens.  What does this speech reveal about the conflicts of individual and public interest in the Greek city-state?