Midterm Review

 

Identifications:

You should be prepared to give a three to four sentence identification of any of the following. You should also be prepared to locate any of the following places on a map of the Mediterranean.

 

People

Things

Places

Agiads

Archon

Argos

Alcmaeonids

Areopagus

Athens

Alcman

aretê

Carthage

Archilochus

Battle of Hysiai

Corcyra

Aristagoras of Miletus

Battle of Marathon

Corinth

Aristides

Battle of Thermopylae

Crete

Bacchiads

Boule

Cyprus

Cleisthenes of Athens

deme

Cyrene

Cleisthenes of Sicyon

Ecclesia

Delphi

Cleomenes

Eleusinian Mysteries

Eleusis

Croesus

emporia

Euboea

Cylon

First Sacred War

Ionia

Cypselus

genos (clan)

Marathon

Cyrus

Gerousia

Megara

Demaratus

Great Rhetra

Messenia

Draco

hectemoroi

Miletus

Epimenides

helot

Mycenae

Eurypontids

Hippeis

Naukratis

Gyges

hoplite warfare

Pithecusa

Harmodius and Aristogeiton

oikos

Salamis

Heinrich Schliemann

Olympic games

Samos

Heraclids

Oracle of Delphi

Sicily

Hesiod

ostracism

Sicyon

Hippias and Hipparchus

Pentacosiomedimnoi

Sparta

Homer

phratry

Tarentum

Isagoras

phyle (tribe)

 

Leonidas

Thetes

 

Leotychides

timê

 

Lycurgus

trittyes

 

Pheidon

xenia

 

Pisistratus

Zeugitai

 

Polykrates

 

 

Solon

 

 

Themistokles

 

 

Theognis

 

 

Theseus

 

 

Tyrtaeus

 

 

 

 

 


Essay Questions:

 

1. What are the common elements of Greek narratives of colonization? Why do these elements appear in so many colonization stories? What is the significance and function of these elements? Use at least three stories of colonization as examples to make your points.

 

 

2. What can the tales of the birth of a leader tell the modern reader about how that leader was perceived by his contemporaries? What common elements in the stories provide clues? Explain with regard to at least two such stories found in Herodotus or other sources.

 

 

3. What roles did women play in Spartan society? What do the conflicting sources have to say about Spartan women?

 

 

4. Why did the Greeks colonize? What conditions, economic, social, and political, led to the process of colonization in the Archaic period?

 

 

5. How did the Spartans develop hoplite warfare to the peak that they did? How did the reforms of ŒLycurgus¹ and the social customs of Sparta contribute to its military prowess?

 

 

6.     For to the people I gave so much honor as is sufficient, neither diminishing their timê nor adding to it in profusion. As for those who held power and were admired for their wealth, I saw to it that they, also, had nothing shameful. I took my stand, covering both in the protection of my mighty shield, nor did I allow either side to win unjustly. (Solon, fr. 5)

 

 

Explain how Solon¹s reforms provided a compromise between the factions in Athens. What advantage did each group obtain? What did each have to give up? In what ways did Solon¹s reforms fail to resolve the problems of Athens?

 

 

7. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Herodotus or Thucydides or Plutarch or Xenophon or the Aristotelian Athenian Constitution as a source for historical information.

 

 

8. What impact did the expansion of trade with the Near East and the Italian peninsula have on the development of the Greek polis?

 

 

9. How does the difference between the poetry of Homer (or Hesiod) and the poetry of Theognis (or Tyrtaeus) reflect the changes in Greek society between the times of those poets? What social institutions do these poems reflect?

 

 

10. What does the appearance and positioning of monumental temples in the Archaic period reveal about the development of the Greek polis?

 

 

11. What narrative pattern do the tales of tyrants, in Herodotus and elsewhere, display? What does this pattern reveal about the way in which the Greeks regarded absolute rulers? Use examples from stories of at least two tyrants. How does Herodotus¹ story of Deioces provide a contrast?

 

 

12.

So, after all, there was not one kind of Strife

alone, but all over the earth there are two. As for the one, a

man would praise her when he came to understand her; but the

other is blameworthy: and they are wholly different in nature.

For one fosters evil war and battle, being cruel: her no man

loves; but perforce, through the will of the deathless gods, men

pay harsh Strife her honour due. But the other is the elder

daughter of dark Night, and the son of Cronos who sits above and

dwells in the aether, set her in the roots of the earth: and she

is far kinder to men. She stirs up even the shiftless to toil;

for a man grows eager to work when he considers his neighbour, a

rich man who hastens to plough and plant and put his house in

good order; and neighbour vies with is neighbour as he hurries

after wealth. This Strife is wholesome for men. And potter is

angry with potter, and craftsman with craftsman, and beggar is

jealous of beggar, and minstrel of minstrel.

 

According to Hesiod (Works and Days, ll. 11-24), competition is a fundamental element of Greek culture. Discuss at least three examples in which competition shaped historical events that we have discussed in class.

 

 

13.  But in Ionia and many other regions where they live under foreign sway, it [love of youths] is counted a disgrace. Foreigners hold this thing, and all training in philosophy and sports, to be disgraceful, because of their despotic government; since, I presume, it is not to the interest of their despots to have lofty notions engendered in their subjects, or any strong friendships and communions; all of which Love is pre-eminently apt to create. It is a lesson that our tyrants learnt by experience; for Aristogeiton's love and Harmodius's friendship grew to be so steadfast that it wrecked their power. Thus where it was held a disgrace to gratify one's lover, the tradition is due to the evil ways of those who made such a law-- that is, to the encroachments of the rulers and to the cowardice of the ruled.

 

In Plato's Symposium (182bd), one character uses the example of Harmodius and Aristogeiton to explain why the love of youths is discouraged in cities under tyrants' control. Why might this be an effective argument for his Athenian audience? How does this passage reflect the different versions of the story found in Thucydides, Herodotus, and the Harmodius skolion?

 

 

14. Although tales of the Dorian invasion or the Ionian migration are difficult to support archaeologically, they were nonetheless important to the ancient Greeks. Discuss at least three examples in which notions of ethnic identity shaped the events of history we have discussed in class.

 

 

15. How did the reforms of Cleisthenes the Athenian differ from the reforms of his grandfather from Sicyon?  What effects did these reforms have within the society of the polis and in the polis' relations with other states?