The Peloponnesian War: from its Beginnings to the Sicilian Expedition and the Scandals of Alcibiades

 

The Causes of the War

resentment of emerging power of Athens

garrisons (phrourai), cleruchies and colonies

Spartan doves and hawks – dual hegemony and cold war anxiety

Corinth and her colonies

Samos vs. Miletus - 440

Corcyra, Epidamnus, and Corinth - 435-433

Potidea - Athens' quarrel with Corinth  - 432-429

Aegina and autonomy 432

Megarian Decree

Spartan and Athenian war aims

 

Archidamian War 431-421

Theban Invasion of Plataia 431-428

Spartan raids into Attica 431-429, 427-425

Athenian retreat to the city and the great Plague

Death of Pericles and the rise of Cleon

Intervention in Sicily 427

Battles at Pylos 425, Delium 424,

Chalkidike campaigns - Amphipolis 422

The Peace of Nicias 421

 

Periclesą Funeral Oration and the Ideas of Athens

Periclesą vision of Athens (2. 34-6)

plague and disorder (2.47-54)

stasis (factional strife) as disease in Corcyra (3.81-4)

Mytilenean Debate and Democracy at War (3.36-50)

Melian Dialogue and Empire (5.84-116)

 

Divisions in the War

Doves and Hawks at Athens and in Sparta

Cleon and the new politicians in Athens

oligarchs vs. democrats

Dorians vs. Ionians

 

Places to Know: 

Aegina

Amphipolis

Boeotia

Chalkidike

Corcyra

Corinth

Macedonia

Megara

Melos

Mytilene

Potidea

Pylos

Samos

Sparta

Thessaly

 


War Renewed

Nicias vs. Alcibiades vs. Hyperbolus

Spartan victory over Argive alliance at Mantinea 418

Athenian massacre at Melos 416

 

History of Athens and Sicily

458-428 Athenian alliances in Sicily – worries of Syracuse

444/3 Foundation of Thurii – Sybaris destroyed by Croton

427-424 Syracuse vs. Leontini

416-413 Segesta appeals to Athens for help vs. Syracuse

415 Sicilian Expedition sets off

The Affair of the Herms and the Scandals of Alcibiades

Alcibiades changes sides; Nicias flounders at Syracuse

413 Athenian fleet massacred in Syracuse harbor

 

Sparta's Opportunity to Win

Spartan Opportunity from Sicilian Disaster

revolts of Athenian allies

fortification of Decelea

Dealing with the Persians:

Amorges vs. Tissaphernes as satrap of Lydia for Darius II

The Liberators of Hellas and the Ionian Cities

Tissaphernes vs. Pharnabazus as Spartan ally

Cyrus and Lysander (commander of Spartan forces 407/6)

connections with Persia bring in gold for the rowers

 

Vicissitudes of Athens

brief oligarchic coup by the Four Hundred (Peisander, Phrynichus) 411

Fleet at Samos creates democratic government in exile with Alcibiades

Cleophon vs. Theramenes  -  the Five Thousand in Athens

Chance for peace after Hellespontine victories – Cyzikos 410

Triumphal return of Alcibiades 407

Alcibiades cast out again after Antiochus' failure at Notium 406

Athenian victory at Arginusae - generals sentenced to death 406

 

Sparta wins the War

Athenian fleet destroyed at Aegospotami 405

Athens besieged

grain supply from Black Sea cut

Athens surrenders in 404

 

Places to Know: 

Aegospotami

Arginusae

Argos

Byzantium

Chalkidike

Corcyra

Cyzicus

Dekelea

Macedonia

Mantinea

Melos

Piraeus

Samos

Segesta

Syracuse

Thurii

File written by Adobe Photoshop® 4.0

446

Thirty years Peace between Athens and Sparta and allies

445

Spartan Pleistoanax exiled, suspected of taking bribes from Pericles

443

Foundation of Thurii, laws by Protagoras

435-3

War between Corinth and Corcyra

431

Peloponnesian War begins

429

Plague in Athens, death of Pericles

428-7

Revolt of Lesbos,  Athenian defeat of Mytilene

427

Gorgias comes to Athens, Athenian forces in Sicily

421

Peace of Nicias between Athens and Sparta

416

Melians massacred, city recolonized by Athens;

415

Euripides' Trojan Women performed;

 

Expedition by Athens to Sicily; Alcibiades charged; skips to Sparta

412

War renewed between Athens and Sparta; Sparta allies with Persia

411

Coup of the Four Hundred at Athens, brief oligarchic rule

410

Spartan Peace offer after battle of Cyzikos

407

Alcibiades returns to Athens

406

Alcibiades cast out after Antiochus' loss at Notium

405

Spartans destroy Athenian fleet at Aegospotami

404

Siege and surrender of Athens

404-3

Regime of the Thirty Tyrants

402-1

March of the Ten Thousand - Greek mercenaries (with Xenophon) flee after disastrous campaign for Cyrus against Artaxerxes

399

Execution of Socrates

 

For Next Week:

Readings: 

Buckley ch. 22 – 24

Thucydides Book VIII

Plutarch – Lysander

 

What factors contributed to the oligarchic revolutions in Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War?  Compare the influence of internal and external factors.

What are the problems with the sources for this period of Greek history?  How do they influence the ways in which we try to reconstruct the period?

What caused the brief success and sudden failure of the Spartan and Theban hegemonies of Greece?  What role did individual leaders play in these situations?  How did the conflict between individual and society play into these hegemonies?