The Rise of Philip of Macedon
and the Coming of Alexander the Great

 

The Rise of Philip of Macedon

Philip takes over the kingship of Macedon -359

Strategic Marriage Alliances

Phila of Elimotis in Macedon

Audata, princess of Illyria

Philinna of Larissa in Thessaly (son Arrhidaios)

Nikesipolis of Pherae (daughter Thessalonike)

Olympias, daughter of Molossian ruler of Epiros (son Alexander)

Medea of Thrace

Cleopatra, daughter of general Attalos of Macedonia

Gold mines of Mt. Pangaia – money for mercenaries and bribes

Military Innovations

tactics of Epaminondas

mobile phalanx of sarissas

light armored citizens

catapults

First Moves in the North - Chalkidike and Amphipolis - 357

 

The Sacred War - Phokis vs. Thebes:  Intervention in Central Greece

Phokian cultivation of sacred land

anti-Theban allies of Phokis – Athens, Sparta, Pherae

Phokian victories in Thessaly bring Philip's retaliation - 352

Philip defeats Phokians in Boeotia, takes Thermopylae

346 settlement of the Sacred War - Philip at the Pythia

 

Conquests in the North

Invasion of Chalkidike  - 349

Destruction of Olynthus – 348

Athens yield Amphipolis - 346

Macedonian conquest of Thrace

Philip besieges Perinthos and Byzantium - 340

Alliance against Philip - Athens and Thebes

Battle of Chaeronea - defeat of Athens and Thebes 338

 

Preparing the Invasion

Corinthian League against Persia

Assassination of Philip - 336

 

 

The Coming of Alexander   

Alexander the Great invades the Persian Empire

Granicus 334

Issus 333

Gaugamela 331

Alexander reaches India - 326

Alexander returns to Babylon and dies -323

 

TIMELINE

 

386

King's Peace between Persia and Greek states

379-8

Liberation of Thebes from Spartans

378-7

Formation of Second Athenian League

375-370

Jason of Pherai leads Thessaly until assassinated by nephew Alexander

371

Thebans defeat Spartans at Battle of Leuctra

370-361

Thebans invade the Peloponnesus

367

Dionysios I dies, Dionysios II takes over Syracuse

364

Thebans destroy Orchomenos, main rival in Boeotia;

 

Thebans defeat Thessalians - death of Pelopidas

362

Thebans defeat Spartans and allies at Mantinea - death of Epaminondas

359

Philip becomes King of Macedon

357

Philip takes Amphipolis, war with Athens

357-355

Social War - subject allies revolt from Athens with aid of Mausollos of Caria

356-4

Dion takes control of Syracuse until assassinated

356

Sacred War - Thebes against Phokians and allies

348

Philip destroys Olynthus; revolt of Euboea

346

Philip makes peace with Athens; celebrates Pythian games

344

Timoleon of Corinth comes to Sicily to remove the Carthaginians

340

Phillip takes Perinthos and Byzantium

338

Battle of Chaeronea - Philip defeats Thebans and Athenians

337

Corinthian League under Philip declares war on Persia

336

Philip assassinated;  Alexander the Great takes over

334-331

Battles of Granicus, Issus, and Gaugamela

326

Alexander reaches India

323

Death of Alexander