The Athenian Revolutions

 

The Development of Athens

Attica – 3 Plains divided by Mountains

Confederation (sunoikismos) of Attica - myths of Theseus

Securing the borders – Eleusis and Salamis

Cylonian conspiracy 630 BCE

The Curse on the Alcmaionids

Purifications of Epimenides

Law code of Drakon 621 BCE

Athenian Power Expands

foundation of Sigeum 610

First Sacred War  around Delphi 595-596

Wars with Megara over Salamis

 

Reforms of Solon

Solon as poet and political actor - Archon 594/3

seisachtheia - the shaking off of burdens

hectemoroi - farmers owing one-sixth of land's produce to nobles

debt slavery

 

New Socio-Economic Classes

Pentacosiomedimnoi - 500 bushels of produce

Hippeis (knights) - 300 bushels

Zeugitai (hoplites) - 200 bushels

Thetes - less than 200 bushels

 

Political and Legal Reforms - new systems and offices

Nine archons:  eponymous, polemarch, archon basileus, 6 thesmothetai

Areopagus

Boule (Council) of 400

Ecclesia (Assembly) of all citizens

Heliaia – the courts of the Assembly

 

Tyranny in Athens:  The Pisistratids

Anarchia

Geographic factions

- the Coast Dwellers led by Megacles the Alcmaionid

- the Plains Dwellers led by Lycurgus son of Aristolaides

- Hills Dwellers led by Pisistratus

 

Pisistratus as Tyrannos:

first tyranny 561 BCE

second tyranny 557 -555? BCE

third tyranny  547-528/7 BCE

Pisistratids as Patrons of Culture

Acropolis Building Projects

Great PanAthenaic Festival established 566 expanded by Pisistratids

City Dionysia established

- Dionysos comes from Eleuthera

- choral competitions and tragedy - Thespis 534 BCE

Building at Eleusis - expansion of the Mysteries?

Purification of Delos - Delian Festival for Ionians

 

Expulsion of the Pisistratids

Pisistratids:  Hippias and Hipparchus succeed their father

Harmodius and Aristogeiton - assassination of Hipparchus - 514 BCE

Alcmaionids at Delphi - temple building and favorable oracles

Cleomenes, king of Sparta, brings Spartan force to expel Hippias - 510 BCE

 

 

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687-652

Gyges rules in Lydia

680-640

life of Archilochos of Paros

669

Spartans defeated by Argives at battle of Hysiai

655-625

Cypselus tyrant of Corinth

650

Orthagoras tyrant of Sicyon

640-600

Theagenes tyrant of Megara

632

Cylonian conspiracy

630

Foundation of Cyrene

621

Drakon gives lawcode to Athens

600

Cleisthenes tyrant of Sicyon

600-595

Athens takes Salamis from Megara

595

Earliest Greek coins minted by Aegina

595-586

First Sacred War for control of Delphi

594-3

Solon Archon of Athens

582

Pythian Games established

581

Isthmian Games established

573

Nemean Games established

572

Marriage contest held by Cleisthenes of Sicyon

561

Pisistratus' first tyranny at Athens

560-550

Sparta at war with Tegea

560-546

Croesus king in Lydia

559

Cyrus becomes ruler of Persia

550

Cyrus conquers Media

546-528

Pisistratus tyrant in Athens

544

floruit of Theognis

527

Pisistratids rule in Athens; Hippias as chief archon

525

Fall of Polykrates of Samos

520-490

Cleomenes King of Sparta

514

Harmodios and Aristogeiton assassinate Hipparchos

510

Expulsion of the Pisistratids from Athens

508/7

Isagoras Archon at Athens; reforms of Cleisthenes

 

Assembly Assignment due before class October 17.

 

Readings:

Buckley ch. 7 & 8, 14

Aristotle, The Constitution of Athens

[Xenophon], The Athenian Constitution 

 

How did Cleisthenes alter the social structures of Athenian society?  What changes did he make to the Solonian forms of government in Athens?

How did the changes in the legal system affect the participation in Athenian government? What were the effects of ostracism?

How did Spartan internal and external politics affect Athens?

What sort of picture do our sources give us of Cleisthenes, Isagoras, Cleomenes, and Demaratus?  What are the strengths and weaknesses of our sources?

What are the causes of the Ionian revolt in Herodotus' account?  What are his sources and how may we assess their value?