The Persian Wars

 

Ionian Revolt

Aristagoras of Miletus - the Naxos Debacle - 499

Athenians assist in the burning of Sardis - 498

Persians crush revolt - Battle of Lade, Sack of Miletus - 494

Phrynichus and the Sack of Miletus - 493

Mardonius' expedition wrecked at Athos - 492

 

Darius' Invasion

Demand for earth and water - Medizing states - 491

Aegina crisis

Invasion at Marathon

Miltiades and the Alcmaionids at Marathon

Plataian allies

Spartan aid comes too late

- Phidippides the runner

- the Spartan Carnea

Athenian Self-Definition: the Saviors of Greece against the Barbarian

The Heroes of Marathon

 

Athens after Marathon

Themistokles and Ostracism - 487

Archons chosen by lot

Aristides the Just - ostracized 482

The Delphic Oracle and the Persian Invasion

Athens' "wooden walls" - Themistokles and the new fleet

 

Xerxes' Invasion

Medizing Greek States

Thessaly - the first line of defense

Battle of Thermopylae - the Spartan moment

- Leonidas the king of Sparta

- Ephialtes the traitor

Battle of Artemisium - aid from Boreas

Evacuation of Athens and the Wall at the Isthmus

 

Xerxes' Invasion

Battle of Salamis

- Themistokles the trickster

- Aeschylus' The Persians

Retreat of Xerxes and the fleet

Mardonius' campaign

- Battle of Plataea

- Battle of Mycale

 

Aftermath of the Persian War

Building of the Long Walls

Spartan concerns over Athenian strength

Themistocles the trickster

Vengeance on the Persians

Pausanias leads Greeks to victory against Persians at Cyprus and Byzantium

Shift of Leadership from Sparta to Athens

Pausanias antagonizes Greek allies

Pausanias recalled to Sparta for corruption, replaced by Dorcis

Athenians Aristides and Cimon win favor with Greek allies

 

 

Readings For Next Week::

Buckley ch. 10 – 15 (focus on 10-12)

Thucydides Book I (focus on 1.89-117)

Plutarch – Cimon

Sophocles Antigone

Fornara # 95 (Peace of Kallias)

 

Thucydides 1.89-93 on Themistokles and the Long Walls provides a good introduction to the historianıs work.  In it he comes close to the style of Herodotus in telling an interesting story in order to make a point:  how the Athenians attained the position that in time enabled them to develop their empire.  What elements of this story might provoke the comparison with Herodotus?  What effect do these elements have upon its reliability as a historical source?

 

Thucydides 1.89-117 provides a condensed account of the development of the Delian League from its beginning until it appears transformed into an Athenian Empire.  The format of a bare listing tends to emphasize Athensı escalating oppression of its allies.  In tracing this development, you may find it helpful to utilize the list format, noting the chronological order of these actions, locating their sites on the map, and considering the justification that Thucydides gives for each.

 

Plutarch recounts the story of Cimon recovering the bones of Theseus.  Why was this action important to the Athenians?  How did it influence Cimon's political career?  What other stories about Cimon reveal the ways he was regarded as a politician?

 

How did the rivalries between the kings and the different factions in Sparta influence the foreign policy of Sparta in this period?

 


Timeline

 

560-546

Croesus king in Lydia

559

Cyrus becomes king of Persia

550

Cyrus conquers Media

546

Cyrus conquers Lydia

546-528

Pisistratus' final tyranny at Athens

539

Cyrus conquers Babylon

530

Death of Cyrus, accession of Cambyses

525

Persian conquest of Egypt

521

Darius takes power in Persia

520-490

Cleomenes King of Sparta

514

Harmodios and Aristogeiton assassinate Hipparchos

512

Darius conquers Thrace

510

Expulsion of the Pisistratids from Athens

508/7

Isagoras Archon at Athens; reforms of Cleisthenes

501/500

Board of Ten Generals instituted at Athens

499

Ionian revolt begins

498

Sardis burned by Ionians; Cleomenes wins Battle of Sepeia

497

Revolt quelled on Cyprus

494

Battle of Lade; Sack of Miletus

493/2

Themistokles archon at Athens; Phrynichus - Sack of Miletus

492

Mardonius' expedition wrecked in storm off Athos

491

Persians demand earth and water; Aeginetan crisis

490

Battle of Marathon - Persians retreat; Death of Cleomenes

487/6

Ostracisms and choice of archons by lot instituted at Athens

483

Persians dig Athos canal; new vein at Laurium silver mine

482

Aristides ostracized; new Athenian fleet built

480

Persian invasion; Battles of Artemisium, Thermopylae, Salamis

479

Battles of Plataea and Mycale