CLASSICAL STUDIES 212

MAGIC IN THE ANCIENT GRECO-ROMAN WORLD

 

Professor Radcliffe G. Edmonds III

Office: Thomas 245 (Phone: 526-5046)

redmonds@brynmawr.edu

Thomas 224 – TTh 2:15-3:45

Office Hours: TThF 10:00-11:00

or by appointment

 

Required Texts:

Apuleius, The Golden Ass (trans. Relihan) (available in Tripod as Ebook)

Betz, Hans D., The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation (PGM)

Gager, John G., Curse Tablets & Binding Spells from the Ancient World

Graf, Fritz, Magic in the Ancient World

Ogden, Daniel, Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts in Greek and Roman Worlds: A Sourcebook (available in Tripod as Ebook)

 

Recommended Texts:

Barton, Tamsyn, Ancient Astrology (available in Tripod as Ebook)

Collins, Derek, Magic in the Ancient Greek World (available in Tripod as Ebook)

Faraone & Obbink, Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic & Religion

Iamblichus, On the Mysteries (trans. Clark, Dillon & Hershbell)

Mauss, Marcel, A General Theory of Magic

 

Course Description:

Bindings and curses, love charms and healing potions, amulets and talismans - from the simple spells designed to meet the needs of the poor and desperate to the complex theurgies of the philosophers, the people of the Greco-Roman World made use of magic to try to influence the world around them.  In this course students will gain an understanding of the magicians of the ancient world and the techniques and devices they used to serve their clientele, as well as the cultural contexts in which these ideas of magic arose.  We shall consider ancient tablets and spell books as well as literary descriptions of magic in the light of theories relating to the religious, political, and social contexts in which magic was used. 

 

Course Requirements:

Class participation:

            Participation, of course, includes attendance, since you cannot participate if you are not in class.  If, for some reason, you cannot attend class, please inform me in advance.  Each student should be prepared to discuss and answer questions on the material covered in the lesson for the week.  Coming prepared with questions on the material is even better than coming with answers to the basics.  If, for some reason, you cannot prepare for class, please attend anyway - you will be better prepared for the next class.

            Tuesday classes will be primarily lecture, with some discussion of the general issues raised in the secondary readings.  On Thursday, the class will discuss the primary and secondary readings in greater detail.  Several students will be selected to lead off the discussion for each class, but every student should be prepared to contribute to the discussion.  Those whose names are drawn from the Hat of Fate should post their questions on Moodle at least 24 hours before class on Thursday.  Anyone else may also gain extra credit for participation by posting questions or comments on Moodle. All readings not in the required textbooks will be available online in the Moodle site for this class.  The syllabus is also online (http://www.brynmawr.edu/classics/redmonds/csts21213.htm).

 

Written Assignments: 

            There will be two short written assignments designed for the students to demonstrate their understanding of specific materials covered in class.  These projects may require some out of class research in addition to the readings assigned for the class. 

            The first of these assignments will require you to take the examples we've looked at in classs and analyze them for their essential features – logical structure, common patterns of formulation, etc.  You will then have to synthesize these features into a composite that illustrates the features of, e.g., a love spell or a curse, and discuss why what you have put together corresponds with the ancient evidence. 

            The second assignment will involve divination, specifically astrology.  You will have to read a chart on the basis of the excerpts from the ancient manuals in the readings and then decide how to advise a client in a specific situation.  The task is not just to show your mastery of the technical details but, even more importantly, of the social dynamics that underlie divination in the ancient world.

 

Examinations:

            There will be take-home Midterm and Final Examinations for this class.  Each of these examinations will require students to apply the analyses and definitions discussed throughout the course to primary materials. These open book essay exams will ask you to analyze ancient materials that we haven't studied in class in the same way we have been analyzing materials in class – looking at the context – what, who, why, where, how -  and connections with other texts we have studied. 

 

Students who think they may need accommodations in this course due to the impact of a learning, physical, or psychological disability are encouraged to meet with me privately early in the semester to discuss their concerns.  Students should also contact Stephanie Bell, Coordinator of Access Services (610-526-7351 or sbell@brynmawr.edu), as soon as possible, to verify their eligibility for reasonable academic accommodations.  Early contact will help to avoid unnecessary inconvenience and delays.

 

Grade Distribution:

Class Participation                   30%

Written Assignments               30%

Midterm Exam                        15%

Final Exam                              25%

 

 

 

Week I (Jan. 22 & 24) - Introduction – Issues of Definition

 

Topics:

      course introduction

      definition of magic

      magic vs. religion, magic vs. science

      instrumental and symbolic action

      ancient contexts of magic

 

Readings:

      Graf, ch. 1-2

 

 


Week II (Jan. 29 & 31) - The World of Ancient Magic

 

Topics:

      societies of the ancient Mediterranean world

      magic and mystery – the lure of magic

      types of magic

 

Readings:

      Graf, ch. 1-2

      Gager, Introduction, ch. 8

      Apuleius, Metamorphoses (esp. ch. 1-3, 9-10)

 

Supplementary Readings

      Bremmer, Birth of the Term 'Magic'

      Frazer, Sympathetic Magic

      Gordon, Imagining Greek and Roman Magic

      Mauss, General Theory of Magic, pp. 44-90

      Phillips, In Search of the Occult

      Smith, Here, There, and Anywhere

      Smith, Trading Places

      Tambiah, Form and Meaning of Magical Acts

      Versnel, Some Reflections on the Relationship

 

 

Week III (Feb. 5 & 7) - Curses – Binding Spells for All Occasions

 

Topics:

      competition and cursing

      athletic contexts

      legal contexts

      binding and harming

 

Readings:

      Graf, ch. 5

      Gager, ch. 1, 3-6 (esp. # 3, 5, 44, 53, 88, 89, 117)

      PGM V 304-69, VII 396-404, VII 423-28, VII 429-58, X 36-50

      Ogden 14, 168-196, 236, 247

 

Supplementary Readings:

      Faraone, The Agonistic Context of Early Greek Binding Spells - Magika Hiera ch. 1

      Strubbe, Cursed be he that moves my bones - Magika Hiera ch. 2

      Versnel, Beyond Cursing - Magika Hiera ch. 3

      Gordon, What's in a List?

      Versnel, Punish Those Who Rejoice in Our Misery

      PGM VII 390-3, VII 394-5, VII 417-22, IX 1-14, XXXVI 1-34, XXXVI 35-68, XXXVI 231-55, and LVIII

 

Defixio Assignment due at noon Friday, February 22

 

Week IV (February 12 & 14) - Love Charms

 

Topics:

      gender and sex

      male vs. female subjects and objects in erotic spells

      sex and violence

 

Readings:

      Gager, ch. 2

      Faraone, The Construction of Gender in Ancient Greek Love Magic

      PGM IV 296-466, IV 1716-1870, IV 2441-2621, IV 2891-2942, XXXII 1-19, XXXIIa 1-25, CXXII

      Ogden 52, 76-81 (Deianeira), 197-213, 224-229 (iunx), 244, 248-255 (erotic amulets)

      Supplementum Magicum nos. 46-51 (with PGM IV 296-466 and Gager # 27-29)

 

Supplementary Readings:

      Dickie, Who Practised Love Magic in Classical Antiquity?

      Faraone, Ancient Greek Love Magic

      LiDonnici, Burning For It

      Winkler, The Constraints of Eros - Magika Hiera, ch. 8

      PGM IV 1390-1495, IV 1496-1595, IV 1870-1927, IV 1928-2000, IV 2000-2125, IV 2622-2707, IV 2708-2784, IV 2943-2966, VII 300a-310, VII 459-77, VII. 593-619, VII 862-918, XVI 1-75, XVIIa, XXXVI 69-101, XXXVI 102-33, XXXVI 134-160, XXXVI 187-210, XXXVI 295-311, XXXVI 333-360, XXXVI 361-371, CI, CVII, CVIII

 

Week V (February 19 & 21) - Healing and Protection

 

Topics:

      defense against the dark arts

      amulets and antidotes

      repairing and healing

      thanks before and after

 

Readings:

      Gager, ch. 7

      Bonner, Studies in Magical Amulets

      PGM IV 2145-2240, IV. 3007-86, VII 193-221, (pdm) xiv. 554-626, XX,

      Ogden 256-276, 13, 47

      Ephesia Grammata

 

Supplementary Readings:

      Kotansky, Incantations and Prayers - Magika Hiera ch. 4

      Scarborough, The Pharmacology of Sacred Plants- Magika Hiera, ch. 5

      Gordon, The Healing Event in Graeco-Roman Folk-Medicine

      PGM IV 1596-1715, VII 260-71, VII 311-18, VII 579-90, XXIIA 1-27, XLIII 1-27, LXX, CXIV, CXV

      Greek Magical Amulets nos. 2, 4, 7, 11, 13, 24, 27, 37, 46, 38

 

 

Week VI (February 26 & 28) - Prayer and Magic

 

Topics:

      thanks before and after

      supplication and coercion

      relationships with divine powers

 

Readings:

      Graf ch. 7

      Graf, Prayer in Magical and Religious Ritual - Magika Hiera, ch. 7

      PGM I 262-347; III 494-611; IV 2241-2358; XII 14-95

      Prayer handout texts

      Ogden 233

 

Supplementary Readings:

      Depew, Reading Greek Prayers

      Mauss, The Gift

      Tambiah, The Magical Power of Words

      Versnel, The Poetics of the Magical Charm

      Sallustius, On the Gods and the World

 

 

Week VII (March 5 & 7) - Divination

 

Topics:

      divination in society

      magician and client

      theories of divination

      mechanics of divination

 

Readings:

      Luck, Divination #72-94

      PGM I 262-347, IV 930-1114, IV 3209-3254, VII 348-358, VII 540-78, VII 740-55, VII 795-845, VIII 64-110

      Ogden 144-155, 160, 164, 30, 36, 112

      Graf, Magic and Divination

      Turner, Divination as a phase in a social process

 

Supplementary Readings:

      Dillery, Chresmologues and Manteis

      Collins, Mapping the Entrails

      Gordon, Reporting the Marvellous

      Manetti, Greek Divination

      PGM I 1-41, II 1-64 II 65-184, III 187-262, III 263-75, III 282-409, III 424-66, IV 3086-3124, V 172-212, VII 1-148, VII 319-34, VII 335-47, VII 359-69, VII 664-85, VII 703-726, VII 727-739, VII 1009-16.

      Iamblichus, De Mysteriis III.11-22

      Oracles of Astrampsychos

 

 

Week VIII  (March 11-15) - Spring Break

 

Take Home Midterm due before class Tuesday March 19

 

Week IX (March 19 & 21) - The Portrait of a Magician

 

Topics:

      practitioners of magic, victims of magic

      women and foreigners, weirdos and quacks

      social context of depictions of magic

      labelling the other vs. self-labelling

 

Readings:

      Graf, ch. 6

      Ogden 44-46, 55-107, 155, 157, 214-223

 

Supplementary Readings

      Gordon, Innovation and Authority

      Lucian, Lover of Lies

      Stratton, Naming the Witch

 

 

Week X (March 26 & 28) - Astrology

 

Topics:

      astrology as divination

      astrology as cosmology

      astrology and society

 

Readings:

      Luck, Astrology - #97-118

      Barton, Ancient Astrology, ch. 4 & 5

      Firmicus Maternus

      Dorotheus Sidonius

      Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos

      Neugebauer, Greek Horoscopes

 

Supplementary Readings:

      Plato, Timaeus 38e-39e

      Beck, Brief History of Ancient Astrology (available in Tripod as Ebook)

      Gordon, Quaedam Veritatis Umbrae

      Konstan, Evidence from Divination

      MacMullen, Social History in Astrology

      Riley, Theoretical and Practical Astrology

 

 

Astrology Assignment due at noon on Friday April 12

 

 

Week XI (April 2 & 4) - Theurgy

 

Topics:

      demonology, philosophy, and the soul

      philosophy and magic

      theories of theurgy

      practical theurgy – means and ends

 

Readings:

      Mithras Liturgy (PGM IV.475-829)

      8th Book of Moses (PGM XIII 1-343)

      Iamblichus, On the Mysteries, Excerpts

      Theurgy Readings

      Johnston, Rising to the Occasion

      Johnston, Animating Statues

 

Supplementary Readings:

      Apuleius, On the God of Socrates

      Plutarch, On the Genius of Socrates

      Plutarch, On the Face in the Moon

      Luck # 51, 59-63, 67-70

      PGM XIII 344-645, 646-734, 735-1077

      Iamblichus, On the Mysteries

      Athanassiadi, Dreams, Theurgy and Freelance Divination

      Edmonds, Seizure of the Moon

      Haluszka, Sacred Signified

      Luck, Theurgy and Forms of Worship in Neoplatonism 

      Smith, J.Z., Towards Interpreting Demonic Powers

 


Week XII (April 5 & 11) - Alchemy

 

Topics:

      alchemy and cosmology

      mechanics of alchemy

      alchemy and science

 

Readings:

      Alchemy Readings

      Zosimus, On Excellence

      Zosimus On the Letter Omega

      Ogden 46

      PGM XII 193-201

      Jung, Visions of Zosimus

      Taylor, A Survey of Greek Alchemy

 

Supplementary Readings:

      Hershbell, Democritus and The Beginnings of Greek Alchemy

      Stolzenberg, Unpropitious Tinctures

 

 

Week XIII (April 16 & 18) - The Magicians Craft

 

Topics:

      magician as religious specialist

      becoming a magician - the sorceror's apprentice

      tools of the trade - books and materials

      Greeks and Egyptians – social contexts, Thessalos of Trales

 

Readings:

      Graf, ch. 4

      Moyer, Thessalos of Tralles

      Ogden 13-19, 44, 45, 53, 54

      PGM I 42-195, IV 26-51, IV 154-285, XIII 1-343

 

Supplementary Readings:

      PGM I 1-42, IV 1-25, IV 52-85, XIII 344-645, 646-734, 735-1077

      Apuleius, Metamorphoses (ch. 11)

      Betz, Introductions

      Brashear - ANRW, part I

      Frankfurter, Dynamics of Ritual Expertise

      Moyer & Dieleman, Miniaturization and Opening of the Mouth

      Ritner, Egyptian Magical Practice under the Roman Empire

      Smith, J.Z., The Temple and the Magician

      Smith, M. The 8th Book of Moses and How It Grew


Week XIV (April 23 & 25) - Accusations of Magic

 

Topics:

      social context of accusations of magic

      witchcraft and the law

 

Readings:

      Graf, ch. 3

      Collins, Magic in Greek and Roman Law, Magic in the Ancient Greek World, Ch. 5

      Phillips, Nullum Crimen Sine Lege, Magika Hiera, ch. 10

      Apuleius, Apology (ed. & intro by Hunink)

      Ogden 278-300

 

Supplementary Readings:

      Bradley, Law, Magic, and Culture in the Apologia of Apuleius

      Collins, Theoris of Lemnos and the Criminalization of Magic

      Kippenberg, Magic in Roman Civil Discourse

 

Week XV (April 30 & May 2) - Definitions and Theory

 

Topics:

      defining magic

      magic and religion; magic and science

      performative language and symbolic systems

      conclusions

 

Readings:

      Smith, Trading Places

      Tambiah, Form and Meaning of Magical Acts

      Versnel, Some Reflections on the Relationship

 

Supplementary Readings:

      Aune, Magic in Early Christianity

      Betz, Magic and Mystery – Magika Hiera ch. 9

      Braarvig, Magic: Reconsidering the Grand Dichotomy

      Collins, Nature, Cause, and Agency

      Edmonds, Extra-Ordinary People

      Gordon, Aelian's Peony

      Gordon, Imagining Greek and Roman Magic

      Fowler, Greek Magic, Greek Religion

      Segal, Hellenistic Magic: Some Questions of Definition

      Smith, Here, There, and Anywhere

      Thomassen, Is Magic a Subclass of Ritual?

 

Take home final exam due before 12:30 pm on Saturday, May 11.