GREEK 643

Readings in the Greek Historians

 

Professor Radcliffe G. Edmonds III

Office: Thomas 245  

Office Phone: 610-526-5046

redmonds@brynmawr.edu

Thomas 251

Th 2:00-4:00

Office Hours: MWF 10-11

or by appointment

 

Required Texts:  

Herodoti Historiae, Volume I: Books I-IV (Oxford Classical Texts)

Herodoti Historiae, Volume II: Books V-IX (Oxford Classical Texts)

Thucydides Historiae, Volume I (Oxford Classical Texts Series)

Thucydides Historiae, Volume II (Oxford Classical Texts Series)

 

Course Description:   

            History, as a way of speaking about the past, was invented by the Greeks.  In this course we examine the works of some of the most significant early Greek historians, Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, as well as the later Plutarch, paying close attention to the question of what history is for these authors. We will examine the events they choose to recount, as well as the ways they narrate the past. We will probe the underlying assumptions the writers make about the nature of the cosmos and the place of humanity within it, with particular focus upon ideas of religion, gender, ethnicity, pattern and causation.  A close reading of the texts themselves in the original Greek will help provide insight into the language of historiography, while the readings from modern scholarship will allow us to probe more deeply into some of the issues raised by the texts.

 

Course Requirements:

Class participation: 

            Each week's assignment will include readings from the primary texts as well as some secondary interpretations.  The first part of the seminar each week will consist of a close reading of the ancient Greek text, with attention to the style and the rhetoric of the text.  Every student is expected to be prepared to translate from the selection designated for the week.  The second part will involve discussion about the interpretation of the text, using the secondary readings as a springboard for discussion.  One or more students will be assigned to write and present a short reaction for each of the secondary readings for the week.  Such reactions should consist, not of a summary of the selection, but rather of points of agreement and disagreement and of questions for further discussion.  Every student is expected to contribute actively to the discussion of the readings. The readings not in the required textbooks will be available on Blackboard or indirectly through a link from the online version of the syllabus http://www.brynmawr.edu/classics/redmonds/grek64311.htm.

 

Written Assignments: 
            There will be one long (around 25 pages) final paper for the course.  Each student should select a topic in consultation with the professor before the middle of the term, and a rough outline and preliminary bibliography should be handed in by the end of the first week after spring break.  Every student will present a short version of the project in the final weeks of the term, and the final version of the paper will be due before the end of the finals period.  Students are encouraged to submit rough drafts for comments before the end of classes.

 

 

Schedule of Readings:

 

Week 1 9/1 Beginnings

Primary Texts:

Š      Herodotus 1.1-5

Š      Thucydides 1.1-23

Š      Xenophon, Anabasis 3.1.1-12

Š      Plutarch, Life of Theseus 1-6

 

Secondary Scholarship:

Š      Hartog, Francois (2000). The Invention of History: The Pre-History of a Concept from Homer to Herodotus. History and Theory 39.3: 384-395.

Š      Kurke, Leslie (2000). Charting the poles of history: Herodotos and Thoukydides. Literature in the Greek and Roman worlds: A new perspective. ed. Taplin, O. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 133-155.

 

 

Week 2 9/8 Theory and Method

Primary Texts:

Š      Herodotus 1.1-5

Š      Thucydides 1.1-23

Š      Xenophon, Anabasis 3.1.1-12

Š      Plutarch, Life of Theseus 1-6

 

Secondary Scholarship:

Š      Bertelli, Lucio. (2001). Hecataeus: From Genealogy to Historiography. The historian's craft in the age of Herodotus. ed. Luraghi, N. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 67-94.

Š      Fowler, Robert Louis. (1996). Herodotos and his contemporaries. Journal of Hellenic Studies 116: 62-87.

Š      Grethlein, J. (2010). The Greeks and their past: Poetry, oratory and history in the fifth century BCE. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Š      Möller, Astrid. (2001). The Beginnings of Chronography: Hellanicus' Hiereiai. The historian's craft in the age of Herodotus. ed. Luraghi, N. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 241-262.

Š      Morley, N. (2004). Theories, models, and concepts in ancient history. London: Routledge.

 

Supplementary:

Š      Harding, P. (2008). The story of Athens: The fragments of the local chronicles of Attika. London: Routledge.

Š      Jacoby, Felix. (1949). Atthis, the local chronicles of ancient Athens. Oxford, Clarendon Press.

 

 

Week 3 9/15 Herodotus I: Myth and History

Primary Texts:

Š      Book I: Croesus to Cyrus

Š      Book IV 145-159: Cyrene

 

Secondary Scholarship:

Š      Calame, Claude (1990). Narrating the Foundation of a City: The Symbolic Birth of a City. Approaches to Greek Myth, ed. Lowell Edmunds, The Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore: 275-341.

Š      Giangiulio, Maurizio (2001). Constructing the Past: Colonial Traditions and the Writing of History. The Case of Cyrene. The historian's craft in the age of Herodotus. edited by Nino Luraghi. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press:  116-137.

Š      Hartog, Franćois (1999). Myth into Logos: The Case of Croesus, or the Historian at Work. From myth to reason? : studies in the development of Greek thought, edited by Richard Buxton, Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press: 183-196.

Š      Malkin, Irad (2003). “Tradition” in Herodotus: the foundation of Cyrene. Herodotus and his world : essays from a conference in memory of George Forrest, ed. by Peter Derow and Ruth Parker. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press: 153-170.

Š      Munson, Rosaria Vignolo (1986). The celebratory purpose of Herodotus. The story of Arion in Histories 1.23-24. Ramus XV: 93-104.

 

Supplementary:

Š      Book V. 91-3: Cypselos

Š      Boedeker, Deborah (1993). Hero Cult and Politics in Herodotus:  The Bones of Orestes. Cultural Poetics in Archaic Greece. Cult, Performance, Politics, ed. Carol Dougherty and Leslie Kurke: 164-177.

Š      Boedeker, Deborah. (1996). Heroic historiography : Simonides and Herodotus on Plataea. Arethusa 29.2: 223-242.

Š      Calame, Claude (2003). Myth and History in Ancient Greece:  The Symbolic Creation of a Colony, trans. Daniel Berman, Princeton University Press.

Š      Chiasson, Charles C. (2003). Herodotus' use of Attic tragedy in the Lydian “logos”. Classical Antiquity 22.1: 5-35.

Š      Konstan, David (1983). The Stories in Herodotus, Book I. Helios 10.1: 1-22.

Š      Rank, Otto (1990). The Myth of the Birth of the Hero. In Quest of the Hero, Princeton University Press, Princeton: 3-86.

Š      Dougherty, Carol (1993). It’s Murder to Found a Colony. Cultural Poetics in Archaic Greece. Cult, Performance, Politics, ed. Carol Dougherty and Leslie Kurke: 178–198.

 

Week 4 9/22 Herodotus II: Herodotus the Tourist

Primary Texts:

Š      Egypt: II.99-150 (esp. 112-120 Helen, 121-123 Rhampsinitus, 142-146 time calculations)

Š      Scythia: IV.1-82

 

Secondary Scholarship:

Š      Fehling, Detlev (1994).  The Art of Herodotus and the Margins of the World. Travel Fact and Travel Fiction, ed. Zweder von Martels, Brill: 1-15. 

Š      Gray, Vivienne (1995). Herodotus and the Rhetoric of Otherness. The American Journal of Philology, 116. 2:185-211.

Š      Redfield, James (1985). Herodotus the Tourist. Classical Philology 80.2: 97-118.

Š      Moyer, Ian (2002). Herodotus and an Egyptian Mirage: The Genealogies of the Theban Priests. The Journal of Hellenic Studies 122: 70-90.

 

Supplementary:

Š      Survey of the world: Books II-IV

Š      Hartog, Francois (1988). The Mirror of Herodotus: The Representation of the Other in the Writing of History. Berkeley.

Š      Lloyd, Alan B. (1975-1988). Herodotus, book II.  Leiden : E. J. Brill. (vol. 1 – Introduction)

 

Week 5 9/29 Thucydides I:  Greatest Hits

Primary Texts:

Š      I.1-23 Archaeology

Š      I.89-118 Pentacontaetia

Š      II.34-65 Pericles’ Funeral Oration & the Ideal of Athens; the Great Plague, Pericles’ Last Speech

Š      III.36-85 Mytilenean Debate & Democracy at War, Plataeans vs. Thebans, Civil War in Corcyra

 

Secondary Scholarship:

Š      Edmunds, L. (1993). “Thucydides in the Act of Writing,” in Tradizione e innovazione nella cultura greca da Omero all'etą ellenistica : scriti in onore di Bruno Gentili. ed. Roberto Pretagostini, Roma: Gruppo editoriale internazionale.

Š      Hornblower, Simon. (1992) The religious dimension to the Peloponnesian War or What Thucydides does not tell us. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology XCIV: 169-197.

Š      Hornblower Simon (1994). “Narratology and Narrative Techniques in Thucydides,” in Greek Historiography. Oxford: 131–166.

Š      Macleod, Colin (1983). “Reason and Necessity: Thucydides III.9-14, 37-48,” Collected essays. Oxford: 88-102.

 

Supplementary:

Š      I-IV in entirety  

Š      Connor, W. R. (1984). Thucydides (available in print and as ebook in Tripod)

Š      Cornford, Francis (1907). Thucydides Mythistoricus (in Carpenter and online at http://old.perseus.tufts.edu/Thucydides/Cornford/CTOC.html)

Š      Macleod, Colin (1983). “Rhetoric and History,” Collected essays. Oxford: 68-87.

Š      Macleod, Colin (1983). “Thucydides’ Plataean Debate,” Collected essays. Oxford: 103-122.

 

 

Week 6 10/6 Thucydides II: Sicily

Primary Texts:

Š      V.84-116 Melian Dialogue

Š      VI.1-6 History of Sicily

Š      VI. 7-29 Nicias and Alcibiades on the Sicilian Expedition

Š      VI.53-61 Herms and the Pisistratids

Š      VII 75-87 – destruction of Athenians in Syracuse.  

 

Secondary Scholarship:

Š      Macleod, Colin (1983). “Form and Meaning in the Melian Dialogue,” Collected essays. Oxford: 52-67.

Š      Mara, Gerald (2009). “Thucydides and Political Thought,” in The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Political Thought, ed. Salkever. Cambridge: 96-125.

Š      Ober, Josiah (1998). “Public Speech and Brute Fact:  Thucydides,” in Political Dissent in Democratic Athens:  Intellectual Critics of Popular Rule. Princeton: 52-121.

Š      Tompkins, Daniel (1972). “Stylistic Characterization in Thucydides: Nicias and Alcibiades,” Yale Classical Studies XXII: 181-214.

 

Supplementary:

Š      V-VIII in entirety  

Š      Macleod, Colin (1983). “Thucydides and Tragedy,” Collected essays. Oxford: 140-158.

Š      Murray, Oswyn (1990). “The Affair of the Mysteries: Democracy and the Drinking Group,” in Sympotica: A symposium on the symposium, ed. Murray, Oxford: 149-161.

Š      Plant, I. M. (1999). The influence of forensic oratory on Thucydides' principles of method. Classical Quarterly N. S. 49.1: 62-73.

Š      Wohl, Victoria (1999). “The Eros of Alcibiades”  Classical Antiquity 18.2: 349-385.

 

 

Week 7 Fall break

 

 

Week 8 10/20 Xenophon I: Thucydidean historiography and Sparta

Primary Texts:

Š      Hellenica 1.1-2.3; 5.4.1-34 (the continuation of Thucydides; the liberation of Thebes)

Š      Constitution of the Lacedaemonians (the whole treatise)

 

Secondary Scholarship:

Š      Gray, V. J. (1991). Continuous History and Xenophon, Hellenica 1-2.3.10. The American Journal of Philology 112. 2: 201-228.

Š      Pownall, Frances Skoczylas (1998). Condemnation of the Impious in Xenophon's "Hellenica". The Harvard Theological Review 91. 3: 251-277.

Š      Redfield, James (1978). The Women of Sparta. Classical Journal LXXIII: 146-161.

Š      Rood, Tim (2004). Xenophon and Diodorus: Continuing Thucydides.  Xenophon and his World. Ed. Tuplin. 341-395.

 

Supplementary:

Š      Anabasis III, IV.7-8 (the introduction of Xenophon and the march to the sea)

Š      Bowden, Hugh (2004). Xenophon and the Scientific Study of Religion.  Xenophon and his World. Ed. Tuplin. 229-246.

Š      Dillery, J.  (1995). Xenophon and the History of His Times. Routledge.

Š      Moles J. L. (1994). Xenophon and Callicratidas. The Journal of Hellenic Studies 114: 70-84.

Š      Pomeroy, Sarah (2004). Xenophon’s Spartan Women.  Xenophon and his World. Ed. Tuplin. 201-213.

 

Week 9 10/27 Xenophon II: Women, Religion, and Socrates

Primary Texts:

Š      Memorabilia 1.1-4 (defence of Socrates), 2.1 (Prodicus’ fable); 3.11(Hetaira Theodote)

Š      Oikonomikos

 

Secondary Scholarship:

Š      Johnstone, Steven (1994). Virtuous Toil, Vicious Work: Xenophon on Aristocratic Style. Classical Philology 89. 3: 219-240.

Š      Murnaghan, S. (1988). How a Woman Can Be More Like a Man: The Dialogue between Ischomachus and His Wife in Xenophon's Oeconomicus. Helios 15.1: 9-22.

Š      Pomeroy, Sarah (1994). Xenophon Oeconomicus: A Social and Historical Commentary. Oxford: 31-67.

Š      Waterfield, Robin (2004). Xenophon’s Socratic Mission. Xenophon and his World. Ed. Tuplin: 79-114.

 

Supplementary:

Š      Xenophon, Apology

Š      Plato, Apology

Š      Danzig, Gabriel (2003). Apologizing for Socrates: Plato and Xenophon on Socrates' Behavior in Court. Transactions of the American Philological Association 133. 2: 281-321.

Š      Gini, Anthony (1993). The Manly Intellect of His Wife: Xenophon, "Oeconomicus" Ch. 7. The Classical World 86. 6: 483-486.

Š      Sansone, David (2004). Heracles at the Y. The Journal of Hellenic Studies 124: 125-142.

Š      Scaife, Ross (1995). Ritual and Persuasion in the House of Ischomachus. The Classical Journal 90. 3: 225-232.

 

Week 10 11/3 Plutarch I: Vitae

Primary Texts:

Š      Life of Theseus, Lycurgus, Alcibiades, Nicias

 

Secondary Scholarship:

Š      Duff, Timothy (2002). The First Five Anecdotes of Plutarch’s Life of Alcibiades. The Statesman in Plutarch’s Works – vol. II The Statesman in Plutarch’s Greek and Roman Lives. ed. de Blois, Bons, Kessels, & Schenkeveld, Brill: 156-166.

Š      Pelling, Christopher (1980). Plutarch's Adaptation of His Source-Material. The Journal of Hellenic Studies 100: 127-140.

Š      Russell, D. A. (2001). Alcibiades or the Flatterer: an analysis. Plutarch. Bristol: 117-129.

Š      Sneeweiss, Gerhart (1979). History and Philosophy in Plutarch: Observations on Plutarch’s Lycurgus. Arktouros : Hellenic studies presented to Bernard M. W. Knox on the occasion of his 65th birthday. ed. Glen W. Bowersock, Walter Burkert, Michael C. J. Putnam. de Gruyter: 376-382.

 

Supplementary:

Š      Larmour, David (1988). Plutarch's Compositional Methods in the Theseus and Romulus. Transactions of the American Philological Association 118: 361- 375.

Š      Pelling, Christopher (1992). Plutarch and Thucydides. Plutarch and the Historical Tradition. Ed Stadter. Routledge: 10-40.

Š      Verdegem, Simon (2002). De gloria Alcibiadis. Alcibiades’ Military Value and its Relation to his Doxa in Plutarch’s Alcibiades. The Statesman in Plutarch’s Works – vol. II The Statesman in Plutarch’s Greek and Roman Lives. ed. de Blois, Bons, Kessels, & Schenkeveld, Brill: 167-178.

Š      von Wilamowitz-Moellendorf, Ulrich (1995). Plutarch as Biographer. Essays on Plutarch’s Lives. ed. Scardigli. Oxford: 46-74.

 

Week 11 11/10 Plutarch II: Moralia

Primary Texts:

Š      Plutarch, On the Daimon of Socrates & Life of Pelopidas

Š      Plutarch, On Isis and Osiris

 

Secondary Scholarship:

Š      Brenk, Frederick (1973). "A Most Strange Doctrine." Daimon in Plutarch. The Classical Journal 69.1: 1-11.

Š      Chlup, Radek (2000). Plutarch's Dualism and the Delphic Cult. Phronesis 45. 2: 138-158.

Š      Pelling, Christopher (2008). Parallel Narratives:  The Liberation of Thebes in de Genio Socratis and in Pelopidas. The Unity of Plutarch's Work: 'Moralia' Themes in the 'Lives', Features of the 'Lives' in the 'Moralia'.  Ed. Nikolaidis. Walter de Gruyter: 539-556.

Š      Richter Daniel S. (2001). Plutarch on Isis and Osiris: Text, Cult, and Cultural Appropriation. Transactions of the American Philological Association 131: 191-216.

 

Supplementary:

Š      Plutarch, On the Oracles at Delphi

Š      Griffiths, J. Gwyn (1967). Allegory in Greece and Egypt. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology  53: 79-102

Š      Lehoux, Daryn. (2007-2008). Drugs and the Delphic oracle. Classical World 101 (1) : 41-56.

Š      Pelling, Christopher (2005). Plutarch's Socrates. Hermathena 179: 105-139.

 

Week 12 11/17: Critical Retrospective

Primary Texts:

Š      Plutarch, On the Malice of Herodotus

Š      Lucian, How to Write History

 

Secondary Scholarship:

Š      Dionysius of Halicarnassus, On Thucydides

Š      Hershbell, Jackson P. (1993). Plutarch and Herodotus – The Beetle in the Rose. Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 136: 143-163.

Š      Rhodes, Peter John. (1994). In defence of the Greek historians. Greece and Rome 41: 156-171.

 

Week 13 Thanksgiving

 

 

Week 14 12/1 presentations

 

 

Week 15 12/8 presentations

 

Final Paper Due December 16


 

Supplementary Bibliography

 

Arnold, Paula E. (1992). The persuasive style of debates in direct speech in Thucydides. Hermes CXX: 44-57.

Bakker, E. J., Wees, H., & Jong, I. J. F. (2002). Brill's companion to Herodotus. Leiden: Brill.

Boardman, J. (2002). The archaeology of nostalgia: How the Greeks re-created their mythical past. London: Thames & Hudson.

Debnar, P. (2001). Speaking the same language: Speech and audience in Thucydides' Spartan debates. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Dewald, C. (2005). Thucydides' war narrative: A structural study. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press.

Dewald, C., & Marincola, J. (2006). The Cambridge companion to Herodotus. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Dillery, J. (1995). Xenophon and the history of his times. London: Routledge.

Erskine, A. (2009). A companion to ancient history. Chichester, U.K: Wiley-Blackwell.

Fehling, D. (1990). Herodotus and his "sources": Citation, invention, and narrative art. Leeds, Great Britain: Francis Cairns.

Flory, S. (1987). The archaic smile of Herodotus. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

Greenwood, E. (2006). Thucydides and the shaping of history. London: Duckworth.

Harding, P. (2008). The story of Athens: The fragments of the local chronicles of Attika. London: Routledge.

Hornblower, S. (2011). Thucydidean themes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hunter, V. J. (1982). Past and process in Herodotus and Thucydides. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.

Jacoby, Felix. (1949). Atthis, the local chronicles of ancient Athens. Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Kinzl, K. H. (2006). A companion to the classical Greek world. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.

Konstan, David. (1987) Persuasion, Greeks and empire. Arethusa XX: 59-73.

Lang, M. L. (1984). Herodotean narrative and discourse. Cambridge, Mass: Published for Oberlin College by Harvard University Press.

Luraghi, N. (2001). The historian's craft in the age of Herodotus. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Macleod, C. (1983). Collected essays. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Marincola, J. (1997). Authority and tradition in ancient historiography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Momigliano, A. (1975). Alien wisdom: The limits of Hellenization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Morley, N. (2004). Theories, models, and concepts in ancient history. London: Routledge.

Morrison, James V. (2004). Memory, Time, and Writing: Oral and Literary Aspects of Thucydides' History. Oral performance and its context. ed. by Chris J. Mackie. Leiden : Brill: 95-116.

Munson, R. V. (2001). Telling wonders: Ethnographic and political discourse in the work of Herodotus. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Rengakos, A., & Tsakmakis, A. (2006). Brill's companion to Thucydides. Leiden: Brill.

Rhodes, Peter John. (1994). In defence of the Greek historians. Greece and Rome 41: 156-171.

Rood, T. (1998). Thucydides: Narrative and explanation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Rusten, J. S. (2009). Thucydides. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sahlins, M. D. (2004). Apologies to Thucydides: Understanding history as culture and vice versa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Shanske, D. (2007). Thucydides and the philosophical origins of history. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Stadter, Philip A. (1973). The Speeches in Thucydides; a collection of original studies with a bibliography. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Thomas, R. (2000). Herodotus in context: Ethnography, science, and the art of persuasion. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.

Vandiver, E. (1991). Heroes in Herodotus: The interaction of myth and history. Frankfurt am Main: P. Lang.


Course Readings Bibliography

 

Bertelli, Lucio. (2001). Hecataeus: From Genealogy to Historiography. The historian's craft in the age of Herodotus. ed. Luraghi, N. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 67-94.

Boedeker, Deborah (1993). Hero Cult and Politics in Herodotus:  The Bones of Orestes. Cultural Poetics in Archaic Greece. Cult, Performance, Politics, ed. Carol Dougherty and Leslie Kurke: 164-177.

Boedeker, Deborah. (1996). Heroic historiography : Simonides and Herodotus on Plataea. Arethusa 29.2: 223-242.

Bowden, Hugh (2004). Xenophon and the Scientific Study of Religion.  Xenophon and his World. Ed. Tuplin. 229-246.

Brenk, Frederick (1973). "A Most Strange Doctrine." Daimon in Plutarch. The Classical Journal 69.1: 1-11.

Calame, Claude (1990). Narrating the Foundation of a City: The Symbolic Birth of a City. Approaches to Greek Myth, ed. Lowell Edmunds, The Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore: 275-341.

Calame, Claude (2003). Myth and History in Ancient Greece:  The Symbolic Creation of a Colony, trans. Daniel Berman, Princeton University Press.

Chiasson, Charles C. (2003). Herodotus' use of Attic tragedy in the Lydian “logos”. Classical Antiquity 22.1: 5-35.

Chlup, Radek (2000). Plutarch's Dualism and the Delphic Cult. Phronesis 45. 2: 138-158.

Connor, W. R. (1984). Thucydides. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.  

Cornford, Francis (1907). Thucydides Mythistoricus London : E. Arnold.

Danzig, Gabriel (2003). Apologizing for Socrates: Plato and Xenophon on Socrates' Behavior in Court. Transactions of the American Philological Association 133. 2: 281-321.

Dillery, J.  (1995). Xenophon and the History of His Times. Routledge.

Dougherty, Carol (1993). It’s Murder to Found a Colony. Cultural Poetics in Archaic Greece. Cult, Performance, Politics, ed. Carol Dougherty and Leslie Kurke: 178–198.

Duff, Timothy (2002). The First Five Anecdotes of Plutarch’s Life of Alcibiades. The Statesman in Plutarch’s Works – vol. II The Statesman in Plutarch’s Greek and Roman Lives. ed. de Blois, Bons, Kessels, & Schenkeveld, Brill: 156-166.

Edmunds, L. (1993). “Thucydides in the Act of Writing,” in Tradizione e innovazione nella cultura greca da Omero all'etą ellenistica : scriti in onore di Bruno Gentili. ed. Roberto Pretagostini, Roma: Gruppo editoriale internazionale.

Fehling, Detlev (1994).  The Art of Herodotus and the Margins of the World. Travel Fact and Travel Fiction, ed. Zweder von Martels, Brill: 1-15. 

Fowler, Robert Louis. (1996). Herodotos and his contemporaries. Journal of Hellenic Studies 116: 62-87.

Giangiulio, Maurizio (2001). Constructing the Past: Colonial Traditions and the Writing of History. The Case of Cyrene. The historian's craft in the age of Herodotus. edited by Nino Luraghi. Oxford; New York : Oxford University Press:  116-137.

Gini, Anthony (1993). The Manly Intellect of His Wife: Xenophon, "Oeconomicus" Ch. 7. The Classical World 86. 6: 483-486.

Gray V. J. (1991). Continuous History and Xenophon, Hellenica 1-2.3.10. The American Journal of Philology 112. 2: 201-228.

Gray, Vivienne (1995). Herodotus and the Rhetoric of Otherness. The American Journal of Philology, 116. 2:185-211.

Grethlein, J. (2010). The Greeks and their past: Poetry, oratory and history in the fifth century BCE. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Griffiths, J. Gwyn (1967). Allegory in Greece and Egypt. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology  53: 79-102

Hartog, Francois (1988). The Mirror of Herodotus: The Representation of the Other in the Writing of History. Berkeley.

Hartog, Franćois (1999). Myth into Logos: The Case of Croesus, or the Historian at Work. From myth to reason? : studies in the development of Greek thought, edited by Richard Buxton, Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press: 183-196.

Hartog, Francois (2000). The Invention of History: The Pre-History of a Concept from Homer to Herodotus. History and Theory 39.3: 384-395.

Hershbell, Jackson P. (1993). Plutarch and Herodotus – The Beetle in the Rose. Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 136: 143-163.

Hornblower, Simon. (1992) The religious dimension to the Peloponnesian War or What Thucydides does not tell us. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology XCIV: 169-197.

Hornblower Simon. (1994). “Narratology and Narrative Techniques in Thucydides,” in Greek Historiography. Oxford: 131–166.

Johnstone, Steven (1994). Virtuous Toil, Vicious Work: Xenophon on Aristocratic Style. Classical Philology 89. 3: 219-240.

Konstan, David (1983). The Stories in Herodotus, Book I. Helios 10.1: 1-22.

Kurke, Leslie (2000). Charting the poles of history: Herodotos and Thoukydides. Literature in the Greek and Roman worlds: A new perspective. ed. Taplin, O. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 133-155.

Larmour, David (1988). Plutarch's Compositional Methods in the Theseus and Romulus. Transactions of the American Philological Association 118: 361- 375.

Lehoux, Daryn. (2007-2008). Drugs and the Delphic oracle. Classical World 101 (1) : 41-56.

Lloyd, Alan B. (1975-1988). Herodotus, book II.  Leiden : E. J. Brill. (vol. 1 – Introduction)

Macleod, Colin (1983). “Form and Meaning in the Melian Dialogue,” Collected essays. Oxford: 52-67.

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