GSEM 619: Death and Beyond

 

Professor Mehmet-Ali Atać

Office:  Thomas 214

Phone: 5659

matac@brynmawr.edu

Office Hours:  M 2-4

 or by appointment

Professor Radcliffe G. Edmonds III

Office: Thomas 245

Phone: 5046

redmonds@brynmawr.edu

Office Hours: TThF 1:00-2:00

or by appointment

 

Required Texts:

Garland, Robert, The Greek Way of Death, Cornell University Press: New York, 1985.

George, Andrew, The Epic of Gilgamesh: A New Translation, Penguin 1999.

Hornung, Erik, The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife, trans. David Lorton, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Van Gennep, Arnold, Rites of Passage, trans. M.B. Vizedom & G. L. Caffee, University of Chicago Press:  Chicago, 1960.

 

Recommended Texts:

Assmann, Jan, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt, trans. David Lorton, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005.

Dunand, Franćoise and Roger Lichtenberg, Mummies and Death in Egypt, trans. David Lorton (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2006)

 

Course Description:

                  The question of what happens after the moment of death has always fascinated humanity - at one moment there is a living person, the next only a corpse; where did the person go? Every culture struggles with these questions of death and afterlife - what does it mean to die and what happens after death?  This seminar will examine a variety of types of evidence - archaeological, poetic, and philosophical - to uncover ideas of death and afterlife in some of the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean world, with particular attention to the similarities and differences between ideas of death and beyond in the cultures of Greece, Egypt, and Mesopotamia. Van Gennep's model of death as a rite de passage provides the basic structure for the class, which is divided into three sections, each concerned with one section of the transition:  Dying - leaving the world of the living; Liminality - the transition between the worlds; and Afterlife - existence after death.  This anthropological model allows us to analyze the different discourses about death and afterlife. 

                  In the first section (Dying), we will first look at ideas of death itself.  One of the fundamental dichotomies in human culture is the split between mortal and immortal, and death can thus be seen as an essential part of being human.  We will examine ideas of when and how a human being should or could die, as well as what happens in the process of dying and how that fits into larger cosmological ideas. 

                  The next section of the course (Liminality) will examine the transition of the deceased into the world of the dead, from the perspective of both the deceased and of the living community.   We will explore the various types of funeral rituals performed by the relatives and mourners of the deceased in different periods, paying special attention to the roles of women and the ways the community regulates funeral behavior.  We will look at the ways in which the journey of the deceased from the realm of the living to the dead is imagined, focusing particularly on the obstacles in the journey and the consequences of a failed transition - monsters and ghosts.   

                  The final section of the course (Afterlife) will deal with the stage after death, again from the perspective of both the deceased and the living.  We will explore visions of the afterlife throughout Mesopotamian, Egytpian, and Greek literature and art, focusing particularly on the changing topography of the underworld and the privileges and punishments reserved for different types in the mystery religions and philosophical schools.  This section will also include a study of the various kinds of rituals performed by the living for the dead, ranging from tendance at the tomb to hero cult. 

                  The class will read selections from a variety of primary sources in translation, along with some secondary sources, both anthropological and historical.  Most of these readings will be available on Blackboard or on reserve in Carpenter, but some will be from the required texts for the class.  Each week several students will be responsible for leading discussion on the special topics; these students will have additional readings to enrich their understanding of the topics (although all students are welcome to do these readings if time permits). 

                  In addition to discussion in the seminar, each student will produce a substantial research paper on a topic chosen in consultation with one or both of the professors.  A detailed proposal will be due in the week before spring break.  All the student proposals will also be read by the panel of experts who will visit the class later in the semester for a cross-cultural symposium.  Every student will give a brief presentation of the research project in the last two weeks of the semester, and the final papers will be due in the exam period.

 

 

Seminar Schedule

 

 

Week 1. Jan. 19-23 Introduction

Reading:  Van Gennep, Rites of Passage

 

 

Week 2. Jan. 26-– Death in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt

Mesopotamia:

Primary Sources:

Black et al., Inanna’s Descent

Dalley, Ishtar’s Descent

Kramer, Death of Ur-Nammu and His Descent to the Netherworld

George, Bilgames and the Netherworld and The Death of Bilgames,

Secondary Sources:

Bottéro, “The Mythology of Death”

Lambert, “The Theology of Death”

Crawford, “Life, Death, and the Meaning of the Universe”

Egypt:

Primary Sources:

Simpson, Pyramid Texts, Coffin Texts, Book of the Dead, Harper’s Song

Secondary Sources:

Morenz, “Death and the Dead”

Hare, “The Reverential Slaughter”

Presenting students also read:

Assmann, Death and Salvation, 1-112

 

Week 3. Feb. 2-6 Death in Greece:  Dying -  Who Dies?  When and How?

Topics:

-  Mortals vs. Immortals

-  Good Death and Bad Death

-  Mechanics of Dying - departure of the psyche, dissolution of elements

 

Primary Readings:

Plato's Phaedo

Hesiod, Works and Days  

Lyric Poets: Callinus, Tyrtaeus, Semonides, Mimnermus, and Solon 

Homer's Iliad xvi, xxii

Herodotus I.30-33 (Solon)

Secondary Readings:

Garland, ch. 1-2

Johnston, ch.1

Vermeule, ch. 1 & 3

Sourvinou-Inwood, To Die and Enter the House of Hades

Humphreys, Death and Time

Special Topics:

-  Mortals vs. Immortals

Vernant, Mortals and Immortals

 Loraux, Therefore Socrates is Immortal

-  Good Death and Bad Death

Vernant, A Beautiful Death

Vernant, Panta kala

-  Mechanics of Dying

Bremmer, The Early Greek Concept of the Soul ch. 1-2

Vernant, Psuche

 

 

Week 4. Feb. 9-13 – Funerary Ritual in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt

Mesopotamia:

Pollock, “Of Priestesses, Princes, and Poor Relations”

Pollock, “Death of a Household”

Katz, “Sumerian Funerary Rituals in Context”

Richardson, “Death and Dismemberment in Mesopotamia”

For those who need background information on the Royal Tombs of Ur,

Early Dynastic Period (ca. 2900-2334 BCE), see Aruz, Art of the

First Cities, 93-132 [easy read lots of pictures – not on Bb but

on reserve in Carpenter]

Presenting students also read:

Cohen, Death Rituals, [read up to the appendices – not on Bb]

 

Egypt:

D’Auria et al., Mummies and Magic

Morris, “Sacrifice for the State”

Presenting students also read:

Assmann, Death and Salvation, 299-348

 

 

Week 5. Feb. 16-20 Liminality for the Community:  The Funeral Ritual in Greece

Topics:

-  Ritual for the community

-  Miasma and Purification

-  Funeral ritual in different periods

- Funeral components - burial vs. cremation, offerings, lamentation

- Funeral Legislation - community regulates its rituals, the role of women

- Parallels between funeral ritual and marriage ritual

- Assimilation of the transitions in myth

- the case of Persephone at Locri

 

Primary Readings:

Iliad xxiii-xxiv

Aeschylus Libation Bearers

Sophocles Antigone

Homeric Hymn to Demeter

Lucian On Mourning

Funeral legislation references: Demosthenes 43.57-66 & Plato, Laws 958d-960b; Plutarch, Life of Solon; Cicero, de legibus 2.55-69

Secondary Readings

Garland, ch. 3; 4

Kurtz and Boardman, ch. vii; xi  

Alexiou, The Ritual Lament ch. 1

Johnston, ch. 2

Vermeule, ch. V

Special Topics:

-  Miasma and Purification

Parker, Miasma ch. 1-2, Cyrene Appendix

Lex Sacra from Selinous

-  Funeral ritual in different periods

Sourvinou-Inwood, A Trauma in Flux; Appendix to Reading Greek Death

Morris, Attitudes toward Death in Archaic Greece

- Lamentation

Alexiou, Ritual Lament ch. 7-9 (on reserve in Carpenter)

Hame, Female Control

- Funeral Legislation

Garland, The well-ordered corpse

Toher, Greek funerary legislation and the two Spartan funerals

- Parallels between funeral ritual and marriage ritual in myth

Seaford, The Tragic Wedding

Rehm, Marriage to Death, ch 1-2

- Marriage to Death: the case of Persephone at Locri

Sourvinou-Inwood, Persephone and Aphrodite at Locri

Redfield, Locrian Maidens

 

 

 

Week 6. Feb. 23-27 – Transition for the Deceased

Mesopotamia:

Primary Sources:

George, Babylonian (Assyrian) Epic of Gilgamesh and the Sumerian

Gilgamesh poems

Dalley, Etana, Myths from Mesopotamia

Izre’el, Adapa and the South Wind, 1-46 [no need to read the

philological notes]

Secondary Sources:

Abusch, “Gilgamesh’s Request and Siduri’s Denial,”

Foster, “Gilgamesh: Sex, Love and the Ascent of Knowledge,”

Presenting students also read:

Liverani, “Adapa, guest of the gods,”

Izre’el, Adapa and the South Wind, 107-149

 

Egypt:

Primary Source:

Allen, Pyramid Texts [including the introduction]

Secondary Sources:

Assmann, Death and Salvation, 113-298

Presenting students also read:

Dunand and Lichtenberg, Mummies and Death in Egypt, 1-107

 

 

 

Week 7. Mar. 2-6 Liminality for the Deceased in Greece:  The Journey and its Perils

Topics:  

-  the journey - directions

-  obstacles to the journey - need for burial, the water barrier, special knowledge

-  Failed transitions - the fate of the unburied, unmarried, or untimely dead, Lamia and other female demons

-  the use of ghosts - necromancy, defixiones

 

Primary Readings:

Odyssey 10-11, 24

Necromancy in Africanus Kestoi & Aeschylus' Persians

Pausanias IX.39 on the Trophonius Oracle

Plutarch, de genio 589f-592f

Orphic’ Gold Tablets

Aristophanes, Frogs

Plato, Phaedo

Secondary Readings

Garland, ch. 4

Johnston, ch. 3

Vermeule, ch. 6

Special Topics:

-  Failed transitions

Smith, Towards Interpreting Demonic Powers

Johnston, Defining the Dreadful

- obstacles to the journey in the Orphic Gold Tablets

Edmonds, Roadmaps of Déviance

Johnston, Ritual Texts

-  the use of ghosts - necromancy, defixiones

Faraone, Binding and Burying the Forces of Evil (part 1 & 2)

Ogden, Necromancy

-  Trophonius

Betz, The Oracle of Trophonius 

Bonnechere, Trophonius of Lebadea

 

Week 8. Mar. 9-13 Spring Break

 

Week 9. Mar. 16-20 – The Beyond in Ancient Mesopotamia

Primary Sources:

Livingstone, Underworld Vision of an Assyrian Prince

For review:

Black et al., Inanna’s Descent

Dalley, Ishtar’s Descent

Kramer, Death of Ur-Nammu and His Descent to the Netherworld

George, Bilgames and the Netherworld and The Death of Bilgames, 175-

208

Secondary Sources:

Katz, Image of the Netherworld, xv-112

Kvanvig, Roots of Apocalyptic

Heimpel, “Sun at Night and the Doors of Heaven,” Journal of Cuneiform

Studies 39 (1987) 127-151 [go to JSTOR].

Presenting students also read:

Katz, Image of the Netherworld, 113-287

 

 

Week 10. Mar. 23-27 Beyond: After Death in Greece - the community regroups

Topics: 

-  secondary burial practices

-  epitaphs and funeral orations

-  visiting the tomb and hero cult

 

Primary Readings:

Epitaphs from the Greek Anthology   

Thucydides 2.33-46, Pericles’ Funeral Oration

Lysias Funeral Oration

Demosthenes Funeral Oration

Hyperides Funeral Oration

Plato, Menexenus

Secondary Readings

Kurtz and Boardman ch. xii; xiv  

Garland, ch.7  

Lattimore, Themes in Greek & Latin Epitaphs

Parker, Ancestral Gods, Ancestral Tombs

Special Topics:

-           funeral orations

Loraux, Address to the Dead

Tyrell & Burnett, Pericles' Muting of Women's Voices in Thuc. 2.45.2

-           epitaphs

Meyer, Epitaphs and Citizenship

Sourvinou-Inwood, Reading Greek Death ch. 3 (part 1 & part 2)

-           visiting the tomb

Humphreys Family Tombs & Tomb Cult

Shapiro, The Iconography of Mourning

Oakley, Picturing death in classical Athens (book on reserve in Carpenter)

-           hero cult

Antonaccio, Contesting the Past

Rohde, Psyche ch.iv

-           reworking hero cult

Flavius Philostratus, Heroicus

Dué & Nagy, On Philostratus On Heroes

 

 

 

Week 11. Mar. 30-Apr. 3 – The Beyond in Ancient Egypt

Primary Sources:

Piankoff and Rambova, Tomb of Ramesses VI (New York: Pantheon Books,

1954) )[Not on Bb -- complete text to be read by presenting

students only – other students please review the drawings and

photographs in both volumes]

Selections from The Book of the Dead (TBD)

Secondary Sources:

Hornung, Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife

Erik Hornung, The Valley of the Kings: Horizon of Eternity, trans.

David Warburton (New York: Timken Publishers, 1990): Chapter 5:

“The Predominant Theme: The Journey of the Sun God,” Chapter 6:

“Further Observations on the Journey of the Sun God,” Chapter 7:

“The Triumph of Magic: The Sun’ God’s Victory over Apophis,”

Chapter 8: “The Kingdom of Osiris: The Netherworld,” Chapter 9:

“The Just Rewarded with Life from Death,” Chapter 10: “The Unjust

Damned to Nonexistence,” Chapter 11: “Equipped for Eternity” (pp.

71-182, many essential illustrations throughout)[not on Bb]

Hornung, “The Hereafter”

Presenting students also read:

Assmann, Death and Salvation, 349-417

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Week 12. Apr. 6-10 Beyond: Afterlife in Greece - Topography of the Underworld

Topics: 

-  the changing location of the underworld - Elysium, Isles of the Blest, Hades

- the nature of life in the afterlife

- privilege and punishment

- Mystery Cults and Salvation

- Eleusinian Mysteries and Orphism

- Symposia of the Blest

- Reincarnation

 

Primary Readings:

Pindar Olympian II & Dirges

 Orphic’ Gold Tablets

Plato: myths from Phaedo and Gorgias;

Plato: selections from Republic, Phaedrus, Phaedo

Pausanias X.28-31 on Polygnotos

Lucian, Dialogues of the Dead

Plutarch de sera numinis vindicta

Secondary Readings

Garland, ch. 5, 6

Vermeule, ch. ii  

Special Topics:

- post-mortem punishment

Saunders, Anxieties and Surrogates

Sourvinou-Inwood, Crime and Punishment

- Mystery Cults and Salvation

Burkert, Mystery Cults 

Redfield, The Politics of Immortality

- Orphism

Parker, Early Orphism

Edmonds, Extra-ordinary People

- Reincarnation

Obeyesekere, Eschatology In Greek And Rebirth Soteriology

Long, Metempsychosis

 

Week 13. Apr. 13-17 Conclusions – Symposium

Friday, April 17 - The Restless Dead and the Perfect Tomb: A Symposium – Tzvi Abusch, Rita Freed, Sarah Iles Johnston

Saturday, April 18 – Brunch with panel of experts

 

Week 14. Apr. 20-24 Student Reports

 

Week 15. Apr. 27-May 1 Student Reports


 READING LIST FOR EGYPT AND MESOPOTAMIA

 

Tzvi Abusch, “Gilgamesh’s Request and Siduri’s Denial,” in Mark E. Cohen et al., eds., The Tablet and the Scroll. Near Eastern Studies in Honor of William W. Hallo (Bethesda, Maryland: CDL Press, 1993) 1-14

James P. Allen, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Writings from the Ancient World (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2005) 1-64

Joan Aruz, ed., Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium BC from the Mediterranean to the Indus (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2003)

Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt, trans. David Lorton (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005) 1-112

Jeremy Black et al., The Literature of Ancient Sumer (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) 65-76

Jean Bottéro, Mesopotamia: Writing, Reasoning, and the Gods, trans. Zainab Bahrani and Marc van de Mieroop (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1992)

Andrew C. Cohen, Death Rituals, Ideology, and the Development of Early Mesopotamian Kingship: Towards a New Understanding of Iraq’s Royal Cemetery of Ur (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2005)

Harriet Crawford, Sumer and the Sumerians (Cambridge University Press, 1994)

Stephanie Dalley, Myths from Mesopotamia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) 

Sue D’Auria et al., Mummies and Magic: The Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1992)

Franćoise Dunand and Roger Lichtenberg, Mummies and Death in Egypt, trans. David Lorton (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2006)

Benjamin Foster, “Gilgamesh: Sex, Love and the Ascent of Knowledge,” in John H. Marks and Robert M. Good, eds. Love and Death in the Ancient Near East: Essays in Honor of Marvin H. Pope (Guilford, Connecticut: Four Quarters Publishing Company, 1987) 21-42

Andrew George, The Epic of Gilgamesh: A New Translation (Penguin 1999)

Tom Hare, ReMembering Osiris: Number, Gender, and the Word in Ancient Egyptian Representational Systems (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1999)

Wolfgang Heimpel, “The Sun at Night and the Doors of Heaven in Babylonian Texts,” Journal of Cuneiform Studies 39 (1987) 127-151.

Erik Hornung, The Valley of the Kings: Horizon of Eternity, trans. David Warburton (New York: Timken Publishers, 1990)

Erik Hornung, Idea into Image: Essays on Ancient Egyptian Thought, trans. Elizabeth Bredeck (New York: Timken, 1992)

Erik Hornung, The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife, trans. David Lorton (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999)

Shlomo Izre’el, Adapa and the South Wind: Language Has the Power of Life and Death (Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 2001)

Dina Katz, The Image of the Netherworld in the Sumerian Sources (Bethesda, Maryland: CDL Press, 2003)

Dina Katz, “Sumerian Funerary Rituals in Context,” in Laneri, ed., Performing Death, 167-188.

Samuel Noah Kramer, “Death of Ur-Nammu and His Descent to the Netherworld,” Journal of Cuneiform Studies 21 (1967) 104-122. 

Helge Kvanvig, Roots of Apocalyptic: The Mesopotamian Background of the Enoch Figure and the Son of Man (Neukirchner Verlag, 1988)

W. G. Lambert, “The Theology of Death,” in Bendt Alster, ed., Death in Mesopotamia: Papers Read at the XXVIe Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale (Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1980) 53-66.

Nicola Laneri, ed., Performing Death: Social Analyses of Funerary Traditions in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean, Oriental Institute Seminars 3 (The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2008)

Mario Liverani, Myth and Politics in Ancient Near Eastern Historiography, ed. and trans. Zainab Bahran (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004)

Alasdair Livingstone, Court Poetry and Literary Miscellanea, State Archives of Assyria 3 (Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 1989)

Siegfried Morenz, Egyptian Religion, trans. Ann E. Kepp (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992)

Ellen F. Morris, “Sacrifice for the State: First Dynasty Royal Funerals and the Rites at Macramallah’s Rectangle,” in Laneri, ed., Performing Death, 15-37.

A. Piankoff and N. Rambova, The Tomb of Ramesses VI (New York: Pantheon Books, 1954)

Susan Pollock, “Of Priestesses, Princes, and Poor Relations: The Dead in the Royal Cemetery of Ur,” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 1 (1991) 171-189.

Susan Pollock, “Death of a Household,” in Laneri, ed., Performing Death, 209-222

Seth Richardson, “Death and Dismemberment in Mesopotamia: Discorporation between the Body and Body Politic,” in Laneri, ed., Performing Death, 189-208.

William Kelly Simpson, ed., The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, Stelae, Autobiographies, and Poetry (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003)

 


READING LIST FOR GREECE

 

Alexiou, Margaret (1974). The ritual lament in Greek tradition. Cambridge University Press..

Antonaccio, Carla M. (1994). Contesting the Past: Hero Cult, Tomb Cult, and Epic in Early Greece. American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 98, No. 3:389-410.

Betz Hans Dieter (1990). The problem of apocalyptic genre in Greek and hellenistic literature : the case of the oracle of Trophonius. Gesammelte Aufsätze, I : Hellenismus und Urchristentum. Tübingen : Mohr: 184-208.

Bonnechere, Pierre (2003). Trophonius of Lebadea: mystery aspects of an oracular cult in Boeotia. Greek mysteries : the archaeology and ritual of ancient Greek secret cults. ed. Michael B. Cosmopoulos. London ; New York : Routledge: 169-192.

Bremmer, Jan (1983). The Early Greek Concept of the Soul, Princeton University Press:  Princeton.

Burkert, Walter (1972). Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism, trans. Edwin L. Minar, Jr., Harvard University Press: Cambridge.

Burkert, Walter (1987). Ancient Mystery Cults. Harvard University Press: Cambridge.

Edmonds, R. (2004). Myths of the Underworld Journey: Plato, Aristophanes, and the ‘Orphic’ Gold Tablets. New York, Cambridge University Press.

Edmonds, R. (2008). Extra-ordinary People: Mystai and Magoi, Magicians and Orphics in the Derveni Papyrus. Classical Philology 103: 16-39.

Faraone, C. A. (1991). Binding and Burying the Forces of Evil: The Defensive Use of 'Voodoo Dolls' in Ancient Greece. Classical Antiquity 10: 165-205.

Garland, Robert (1985). The Greek Way of Death, Cornell University Press: New York.

Garland, Robert (1989). The well-ordered corpse. An investigation into the motives behind Greek funerary legislation. BICS XXXVI: 1-15.

Hame, Kerri (2008). Female Control of Funeral Rites in Greek Tragedy: Klytaimestra, Medea, and Antigone. Classical Philology 103: 1-15.

Humphreys, S. C. (1981). Death and Time. Mortality and Immortality: the Anthropology and Archaeology of Death. S. C. Humphreys & H. King. London, Academic Press: 261-283.

Humphreys, S. C. (1993). Family Tombs & Tomb Cult . The family, women and death : comparative studies.  Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press: 79-134.

Johnston, S. I. and F. Graf (2007). Ritual Texts for the Afterlife. Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets. London and New York: Routledge.

Johnston, Sarah Iles (1995). Defining the Dreadful:  Remarks on the Greek Child-Killing Demon. Ancient Magic and Ritual Power. M. M. a. P. Mirecki. Leiden, E.J. Brill: 361-390.

Johnston, Sarah Iles (1999). The Restless Dead:  Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece, University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles,.

Kurtz, Donna and John Boardman (1971). Greek Burial Customs, Cornell University Press:  Ithaca.

Lattimore, Richmond (1962). Themes in Greek and Latin Epitaphs, University of Illinois Press:  Urbana.

Loraux, Nicole (1986). The Invention of Athens:  The Funeral Oration in the Classical City, trans. Alan Sheridan, Harvard University Press: Cambridge.

Loraux, Nicole (1995). Therefore Socrates is Immortal. The Experiences of Tiresias: The Feminine and the Greek Man. Trans. Wissing. Princeton University Press: 145-167.

Meyer, Elizabeth A. (1993). Epitaphs and Citizenship in Classical Athens. The Journal of Hellenic Studies 113: 99-121

Morris, I. (1989). Attitudes toward death in archaic Greece. Classical Antiquity 8(2): 296-320.

Oakley, John H. (2004). Picturing death in classical Athens : the evidence of the white lekythoi. Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press.

Obeyesekere, Gananath (2002). Eschatology In Greek And Rebirth Soteriology. Imagining Karma : Ethical Transformation in Amerindian, Buddhist, and Greek Rebirth. Ewing, NJ, USA: University of California Press.

Ogden, Daniel (2001). Greek and Roman necromancy. Princeton University Press.

Parker, R. (1983). Miasma:  Pollution and Purity in Early Greek Religion. Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Parker, R. (1995). Early Orphism. The Greek world. A. Powell. London, Routledge: 483-510.

Parker, Robert (2005). Polytheism and society at Athens. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

Redfield, J. (1991). The politics of immortality. Orphisme et Orphée:  En l'honneur de Jean Rudhardt. P. Borgeaud. Geneva. 3: 103-17.

Redfield, J. (2003). The Locrian maidens : love and death in Greek Italy. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press.

Rehm, Rush (1994). Marriage to death : the conflation of wedding and funeral rituals in Greek tragedy. Princeton University Press.

Rohde, Erwin, Psyche: The Cult of Souls and Belief in Immortality among the Greeks, trans. Hillis, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner &Co., Ltd.: London, 1925.

Saunders, Trevor J. (1991). Anxieties and Surrogates. Plato's Penal Code:  Tradition, Controversy, and Reform in Greek Penology. Clarendon Press:  Oxford.

Seaford, Richard (1987). The Tragic Wedding,"Journal of Hellenic Studies cvii: 106-130.

Shapiro, H. A. (1991). The Iconography of Mourning in Athenian Art.  American Journal of Archaeology  95.4: 629-656

Smith J. Z. (1976). Towards interpreting demonic powers in Hellenistic and Roman antiquity. ANRW II N° 16.1 : 425-439.

Sourvinou-Inwood, Christiane (1978). Persephone and Aphrodite at Locri: A Model for Personality Definitions in Greek Religion. The Journal of Hellenic Studies 98: 101-121.

Sourvinou-Inwood, Christiane (1981). To Die and Enter the House of Hades: Homer, Before and After. Mirrors of Mortality: Studies in the Social History of Death. J. Whaley. New York, St. Martin's Press: 15-39.

Sourvinou-Inwood, Christiane (1983). A trauma in flux: death in the 8th century and after. The Greek Renaissance in the Eighth Century B.C.:  Tradition and Innovation. R. Hägg. Stockholm: 33-49.

Sourvinou-Inwood, Christiane (1986). Crime and Punishment: Tityos, Tantalos, and Sisyphos in Odyseey 11. BICS 33: 37-58.

Sourvinou-Inwood, Christiane (1995). 'Reading' Greek Death. Clarendon Press:  Oxford.

Toher, Mark (1991). Greek funerary legislation and the two Spartan funerals. Georgica: Greek Studies in honour of G. Cawkwell. ed. Flower and Toher. BICS Supplement 58: 159-175.

Tyrrell, Wm. Blake, and Larry J. Bennett (1999). Pericles' Muting of Women's Voices in Thuc. 2.45.2. The Classical Journal  95.1: 37-51

Van Gennep, Arnold (1960). Rites of Passage, trans. M.B. Vizedom & G. L. Caffee, University of Chicago Press:  Chicago.

Vermeule, Emily, Aspects of Death in Early Greek Art and Poetry, University of California Press:  Berkeley, 1979.

Vernant, Jean Pierre (1991). Mortals and immortals: collected essays. ed Zeitlin. Princeton University Press.