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Philia phase - 2,500 - 2,350 BC
Period Overivew: The Philia phase was a short time period at the end of the Chalcolithic period and just before the Early Bronze Age or from 2,500-2,350 BC. The Philia phase is contemporary with the Late Chalcolithic period in some areas. There was some misunderstanding about the Philia phase until Webb and Frankel demonstrated that the Philia phase was clearly before Early Cypriote I and II materials at the settlement of Marki-Alonia. Previously, Peltenburg had argued that the Philia phase coexisted with the Early Cypriote I and II phases. Philia phase sites are primarily found in the western, southwestern and central part of the island, but there is a dearth of Philia sites on the east side. There are a total of 19 Philia sites and almost all are cemeteries.
The Philia phase represents a time of major change and influx on the island and the period has significant correlations with Anatolia. There are changes in ceramic technology as well as farming tools such as the plow and sickle blades and even architecture as more complex rectilinear structures are constructed. Some scholars envision migrations from Southwest Anatolia, which would have brought the Philia culture to the western part of the island. The changes introduced by the Philia phase developed into the Early Cypriote period.
Map of Cyprus showing sites of various time periods. Notice the location of type site Philia half way in between the Kyrenia and Troodos Mountains.
Map taken from Karageorghis, V. 2000. Ancient Art from Cyprus. The Cesnola Collection in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, pg xiv.
Red Polished I (Philia) Ware sherds from Philia in the Bryn Mawr Collections
Black Slip Combed (Philia) Ware sherds from Philia in the Bryn Mawr Collections
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