Helpful Hints for Writers of Scientific Papers!
does it reflect content?
what is the paper about?
outline purpose why did you start?
methods used what did you do and how?
important results what did you find?
what results mean what do your findings mean?
what you did the main problem should be stated
main results - state conclusion anything new?
main findings and conclusions
what was done
how it contributes to future work
purpose? --state the problem, why did you do it?--objective must be CLEAR!!
if you modified work after beginning, state why
methods of investigation
reasons for chosen approach
how it adds to previous knowledge--the big picture
survey of previous work or history--review (try not to quote much)
other relevant investigations
geology people usually do a framework and/or field relations
things like geologic setting, time, facies, rock type, outcrop characteristics, etc.
statement of results (principle)
general topic, particular aspect
state question you intend to answer
explain importance of work
any limitations, any assumptions
last sentence: state conclusion
briefly----conclusion expands it
Methods and Procedures
what was studied and how experimental approach
what materials did you use - criteria
how did you use them? - Textural criteria (microstructures)
what you did in operational order
should be repeatable by someone else
this may be brief, but clear
full report - write in past tense
summarize results in a set of concise, numbered statements
what did you see or find?
original data in Appendix--Results are summaries
show how results follow logically from information developed during investigation
- any secondary or unexpected results
explain concisely - primary intent versus trivial
repetitive result in tables or graphs
do not repeat data on tables, graphs or text - unless needed to reinforce a specific point
statistics - use statistics to show results, not ranges
don't review results
discuss relations between facts, interpret significance, and give evidence for inference
do results support or contradict findings of others?
use reasonable, testable hypothesis
what do your findings mean?
does work contribute to solution or solve problem?
examine your results - explain significance -answer the question asked in the introduction
(statement of facts in present tense)
(what you did in past tense)
must contain logical argument -explain how results add to existing knowledge
ask - can my hypothesis be refuted?
conclusion occurs 3 times-- in discussion, abstract and introduction
compiled by B. Cheyney from various sources