Extensive research suggested that older adults’ memory that require access to detailed information about the context in which an event was experienced (recollection-based memory) is disproportionately worse relative to memory on whether the event was previously experienced (familiarity-based memory), and that this age-related deficit in memory for contextual information is related to frontal-lobe (FL) and medial-temporal lobe (MTL) functioning. The current research project aims to study how episodic memory changes with FL and MTL functioning during normal adult aging. 125 young and old participants will complete a neuropsychological test that measures FL and MTL functioning and two memory tasks (an associative memory task and a remember-know task). Behavioral measures (accuracy, response time, and confidence ratings) of each participant will be obtained, and the electroencephalographic (EEG) activities in the brain that directly correspond to specific neural or psychological processes, known as the event-related potentials (ERPs), will be recorded during both the encoding and the retrieval phases of the remember-know memory task. The ERPs will be used to examine the electrophysiological signatures of different retrieval processes across both age groups. Advanced statistical modeling techniques that have been suggested to provide good accounts for the cognitive processes, including Bayesian hierarchical modeling and diffusion modeling, will be performed on the behavioral data to characterize the effects of aging and FL/MTL functioning on associative memory and recollection- and familiarity-based judgments.