Beyond the Cytoskeleton: The Emerging Role of Organelles and Membrane Remodeling in the Regulation of Axon Collateral Branches
Winkle, CC; Taylor, KL; Dent, EW; Gallo, G; Greif, KF; Gupton, SL
DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, 76 (12):1293-1307; 10.1002/dneu.22398 DEC 2016
The generation of axon collateral branches is a fundamental aspect of the development of the nervous system and the response of axons to injury. Although much has been discovered about the signaling pathways and cytoskeletal dynamics underlying branching, additional aspects of the cell biology of axon branching have received less attention. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of key factors involved in axon branching. This article focuses on how cytoskeletal mechanisms, intracellular organelles, such as mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum, and membrane remodeling (exocytosis and endocytosis) contribute to branch initiation and formation. Together this growing literature provides valuable insight as well as a platform for continued investigation into how multiple aspects of axonal cell biology are spatially and temporally orchestrated to give rise to axon branches.